Islam: Europe's Second Largest Religion

As in the rest of the world, Islam is in the midst of a rapid growth in Europe. This development has been attracting more attention in recent years, as evidenced by the many theses, reports, and articles published on "the place of Muslims in Europe" and "dialogue between European society and Muslims." Along with these academic reports, the media has carried frequent reports about Islam and Muslims. The root of this interest lies in the continual growth of Muslim population figures in Europe, and that this increase cannot be ascribed solely to immigration. While immigration certainly has had a significant effect on the Muslim population's growth, so many researchers have addressed this matter for quite another reason: high conversion rates.

The Roman Catholic Church, headquartered in Vatican City, is one of the institutions that follows conversion trends. One of the main topics during the October 1999 meeting of the European synod, which was attended by almost all of the Catholic clergy, was the Church's position in the new millennium. The conference's main theme was the rapid growth of Islam in Europe. The National Catholic Reporter reported that some radical individuals stated that the only way to prevent Muslims' gaining power in Europe was to stop tolerating Muslims and Islam; other more objective and rational individuals underscored the fact that since the two religions believe in one God, there should be no room for any conflict or struggle between them. In one session, Archbishop Karl Lehmann of Germany stressed that there is more internal pluralism within Islam than many Christians perceive, and that the radicals' claims about Islam had no basis in truth.61

Considering the position of Muslims when elucidating the Church's position in the new millennium was quite proper, for a 1999 United Nations' survey showed that between 1989 and 1998, Europe's Muslim population grew by more than 100 percent.62 Today, about 13 million Muslims live in Western Europe: 3.9 million in Germany, 3.3 million in Britain, 7.5 million in France, and the rest in other countries.63

Relevant research also has revealed that while the number of Muslims in Europe continues to grow, there is a deepening of religious awareness among Muslims. According to a survey conducted by the French newspaper Le Monde in October 2001, compared to data collected in 1994, many Muslims continue to perform their prayers, go to the mosque, and fast. This awareness is seen much more among university students.64

In an Aktuel magazine article, which was based on reports in the foreign press, Western researchers said that Europe would become one of the most important centers for the dissemination of Islam about 50 years later.65

Along with this sociological and demographic research, we also must not forget that Europe has not become acquainted with Islam only recently, but that Islam is actually an inseparable part of Europe.

(Above) The Economist commented on the state of Muslims living in Europe after 9/11, and reported on the current and historical relations between Europe and Islam.(Middle) This is London magazine reported on the Muslim converts living in England in its article "The New Face of Islam." Some interesting information about the increasing number of Muslims is that great majority of converts are women. (Below) In a New York Times article entitled "Islam is Part of the West, Too," Wolfgang Petritsch, High Representative of the Bosnia-Herzegovina International Community, said it is not possible to separate Islam and the West from each other. According to him, Bosnia-Herzegovina is one of the best examples of the blending of Western and Islamic cultures. Europe streams to Islam, Islam is Europe's second religion, In the West interest in Islam is increasing, Islam settles in Europe, Europe wams to Islam, Islamic life gains stregnth in Europe.

About 12 million Muslims live in Europe, which makes Islam its second largest religion. One of the clearest indications of Islam's rising influence there is the Muslim community's constant growth.

The History of Islam in Europe

Europe and the realm of Islam have had close relations with each other for centuries. First, the state of Andalusia (756-1492) on the Iberian Peninsula, and later the Crusades (1095-1291) and the Ottoman capture of the Balkans (1389), brought about a constant interrelation between the two societies. Many historians and sociologists assert today that Islam was the leading cause of Europe's movement from the darkness of its Middle Ages to the brilliance of its Renaissance. At a time when Europe was backward in medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and many other fields, Muslims possessed a vast treasure of knowledge and great possibilities of development.

The first event that made Europeans aware of Islam's coming important place in their lives was the caliph 'Umar ibn al-Khattab's capture of Jerusalem (638). This caused Europe to realize for the first time that Islam was spreading and approaching its own borders. The main reason for the Crusades, launched four centuries later, was to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims. But the Crusaders who set out for this purpose gained something else, for the contact they made with the Muslim world was the first step toward Europe's rebirth. Dominated by darkness, conflict, war, and despotism, Europe encountered the Islamic world's advanced civilization and saw that its inhabitants were both highly prosperous and civilized, as well as quite advanced in the fields of medicine, astronomy, and mathematics as in their social lives. They also saw that values rarely found in Europe at that time (e.g., pluralism, tolerance, understanding, compassion, and self-sacrifice) were aspects of the high morality expressed by Muslims, who were aware of their religious responsibilities.

A painting named "Sunset in Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives.Jerusalem, when it entered the Islamic fold during the reign of 'Umar ibn al-Kattab, enjoyed a brand new period of peace and tolerance. The Islamic morality formed the basis of this exemplary environment.
"Those who, if We establish them firmly on the earth, will establish salat and pay alms, and command what is right and forbid what is wrong. The end result of all affairs is with God.(Qur'an 22:41)
Our Word was given before to Our slaves, the Messengers, that they would certainly be helped. It is Our army which will be victorious.(Qur'an, 37: 171-173)

Meanwhile, as the Crusades continued, European societies also had relations with a Muslim society much closer to home: the Muslim kingdom of Andalusia, located in the southern part of their own continent. Andalusia had a great cultural influence upon Europe until its demise in the late fifteenth century. Many historians who have studied Andalusia's influence upon Europe agree that this kingdom, with its social structure and high level of civilization, was far more advanced than the rest of Europe, and that it was one of the principle factors in the development of European civilization. The prominent Spanish historian Blanco Iba˝ez writes that:

Spain's famous Cordoba Mosque, built during 784-86.
Rather We hurl the truth against falsehood and it cuts right through it and it vanishes clean away! Woe without end for you for what you portray! (Qur'an 21:18)

Defeat in Spain did not come from the north; the Muslim conquerors came from the south. This was much more than a victory, it was a leap of civilization. Because of this, the richest and most brilliant civilization known in Europe was born and flourished throughout the Middle Ages between the 8th and the 15th centuries. During this period northern peoples were shattered by religious wars, and while they moved about in bloodthirsty hoards, the population of Andalusia surpassed 30 million. In this number, which was high for the time, every race and religion moved freely and with equality, and the pulse of society was very lively.66

Interior view of one of the towers of Andalusia's famous Alhambra Palace.
We appointed leaders from among them, guiding by Our command when they were steadfast and when they had certainty about Our Signs.(Qur'an. 32:24)

With its well-illuminated streets, the capital Cordoba provided a striking contrast to the European cities and according to the English historian John W. Draper, "Seven hundred years after this time, there was not so much as one public lamp in London. In Paris, centuries later, whoever stepped over his threshold on a rainy day stepped up to his ankles in mud."67

Andalusia finally ceased to exist in 1492 with the fall of Granada, the last Muslim kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula. But now, Europeans came face to face with the Ottoman Empire, which was beginning to advance in the Balkans during the fifteenth century as a result of several victories and mass conversions among the Balkan people. This conversion was never forced or obtained by pressure. In time, the Islamic morality put in place by the Ottomans brought those who witnessed it to choose Islam freely. Ottoman civilization, built on the Qur'anic moral values of justice, equality, tolerance, and compassion, remained in the Balkans for 400 years, and its traces can still be seen there. (A large number of these remains were destroyed by Serbian troops and missiles during the war in Bosnia, but this does not change the facts of history.) This Qur'anic-based civilization made Islam an important part of Europe. Even today, quite a large number of European Muslims live in the Balkans.

One person who believes that European civilization has learned much from Islam and that the two civilizations have always been intimately connected is Charles, Prince of Wales. Prince Charles describes Islamic civilization and what Andalusia and the Ottoman experience in the Balkans has taught Europe:

Diplomacy, free trade, open borders, the techniques of academic research, of anthropology, etiquette, fashion, alternative medicine, hospitals, all came from this great city of cities. Mediaeval Islam was a religion of remarkable tolerance for its time, allowing Jews and Christians to practice their inherited beliefs, and setting an example which was not, unfortunately, copied for many centuries in the West. The surprise, ladies and gentlemen, is the extent to which Islam has been a part of Europe for so long, first in Spain, then in the Balkans, and the extent to which it has contributed so much towards the civilization which we all too often think of, wrongly, as entirely Western. Islam is part of our past and present, in all fields of human endeavour. It has helped to create modern Europe. It is part of our own inheritance, not a thing apart.68

The Swedish ambassador Ingmar Karlsson, known in Turkey for his book Islam and Europe, says that in the Andalusian period, Christians, Muslims, and Jews lived together in peace and that this should be taken as a model in Europe.

High representative for the International Community in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Wolfgang Petritsch, stresses in an article in the November 20, 2001 edition of the New York Times that the struggle against terror must not be directed against Islam and that it must never be forgotten that Islam is actually a part of Europe. In his article, "Islam is Part of the West, Too," he states: "When we step beyond the us-and-them paradigm, we might remember that Islam is part of the European tradition."69 Keeping this historical fact in mind is one way to prevent the chaos desired by those provocateurs who put forward the "clash of civilizations" thesis. Differences in civilization are not reasons for conflict; rather, they can be an important means of advancing dialogue.


European Leaders and Islam

European leaders have considered two facts very carefully: There will be no conflict between Islam and Christianity, and Islam has not allied itself with terrorism. Most European governmental leaders and prominent politicians have sent messages commending Islam and expressing their interest in its moral teachings.

As mentioned above, Prince Charles has a close connection with Islam. He first expressed this at Oxford in 1993. Since that time, he has had close relations with Muslims living in England and has attended many meetings and openings organized by Muslims. He also has expressed his admiration for Islam many times. At Wilson Park in 1996, he made his admiration for Islam clear, as well as the reasons for it. Stressing the following points, he stated:

I feel that we in the West could be helped to rediscover the roots of our own understanding by an appreciation of the Islamic tradition's deep respect for the timeless traditions of the natural order.... Modern materialism is unbalanced and increasingly damaging in its long-term consequences.... But during the past three centuries, in the Western world at least, a dangerous division has occurred in the way we perceive the world around us. Science has tried to assume a monopoly, even a tyranny, over our understanding. Religion and science have become separated... We are only now beginning to gauge the disastrous results... Science has done the inestimable service of showing us a world much more complex than we ever imagined. But in its modern, materialist, one-dimensional form, it cannot explain everything.... This [materialist] view is quite contrary, for example, to the outlook of the Muslim craftsman or artist, who is never concerned with display for its own sake, nor with progressing ever forward in his own ingenuity, but is content to submit a man's craft to God. That outlook reflects, I believe, the memorable passage in the Koran: "whithersoever you turn there is the face of God and God is all-Embracing, all-Knowing".... There are many ways in which mutual understanding and appreciation can be built. Perhaps, for instance, we could begin by having more Muslim teachers in British schools, or by encouraging exchanges of teachers. Everywhere in the world people want to learn English. But in the West, in turn, we need to be taught by Islamic teachers how to learn with our hearts, as well as our heads.70

Through the Prince Foundation, Prince Charles has sought to benefit Muslims. The Oxford Islamic Research Center, which began its activities in 1993, was founded with his sponsorship. The Visual Islamic and Traditional Arts department, which carries on its activities in conjunction with his foundation, works to provide, among other things, the sociological and economic means to support the traditions and cultures of British Muslims, cover the costs of education for Muslim children, and establish interreligious dialogue. Lately, through this section, the prince raised 10 million pounds for the Muslim Centre Project to be established in London.71

(Above) A report in the Muslim News relates Prince Charles' conversation with some Muslim young people whom he had received at Buckingham Palace.(Middle) The BBC reported, in "Prince joins Ramadan Ceremony." that Prince Charles visited a mosque and some Islamic schools in East London during Ramadan. (Below) In address at Wilton Park, the prince criticized materialism and said that Islam gave the best answer to the materialist point of view. Commonsense Prince, The Prince visited a mosque, Price Charles: I won't have Islam belittled; Prince Charles has a good relationship with Muslims living in England, and often meets with them and listens to their problems.He often says that he is as much impressed by Islamic morality as he is by Islamic art. One of the most evident examples of this is the "Islamic garden" that he had constructed based completely on Islamic works of art.

Prince Charles is especially concerned with educating Muslim youth. In 2001, for the first time he invited Muslims to attend a Ramadan celebration in Buckingham Palace, and there expressed his thoughts on this matter to specially invited Muslim young people. The event was reported in The Muslim News in the following words:

He welcomed the "greater sensitivity and imagination" offered by Muslim youth, because without that "we will become so much more dry and sterile." Prince Charles acknowledged the diversity of the Muslim youth present: "You make up what I can only describe as a very rich tapestry that makes an enormous difference to the diversity and richness of our country. One of the things I have always tried to get across, which is not always easy, is that in a world which is increasingly secular, increasingly materialistic, it is absolutely essential for all those who believe and have faith in something greater than ourselves in something beyond the purely material, are remembered and celebrated."72

During this reception, he chatted with individual young Muslims about their needs for more than an hour, asking them if they encountered any difficulties in their education, careers, and the practice of Islam. Among other things, the prince was especially curious about whether young people understood the spirit of the Qur'an, if they had read it from cover to cover, if they had encountered any difficulties at school during Ramadan, and whether they were happy with the food offered by their schools for the iftar meal.73

The interest shown by Prince Charles is certainly highly important. The change in the thinking of prominent statesmen on this matter is a huge step toward eradicating the false opinion that certain circles in the West have been trying to create about Islam. Clearly, a society whose leaders realize the beauty and superiority of Islamic morality will be able to approach Islam far more easily, and Muslims living in that society will enjoy more peaceful lives. For this reason, it is an important responsibility to ensure that prominent people receive accurate information about Islam. People familiar with Islam and its moral teachings, no matter what their position, certainly will share their impressions with others. If they are among the leaders of that particular society, both those who direct society and who address the masses will benefit from these impressions.

Therefore, when you read these descriptions, realize the extraordinary nature of these developments. In the Western world today, there is a growing rapprochement with Islam. Certainly this is good news for Muslims who work to show the proofs of God's Existence and Unity, defeat the prevailing materialist ideologies, and communicate true religion to others. Believers also are responsible for relating this good news to all Muslims.


Those Who Turn To Islam

As stated above, the sympathy that leaders feel for Islam deeply affects the desire of people to approach Islam. One indication of this is the number of Europeans who, over the last few years, have converted to Islam. Research shows that these new converts are not uneducated; rather, most of them have a university education and a career.

The April 30, 2001, edition of The Daily Telegraph published information about the turn to Islam, especially in England. While interviewing converts, the following picture emerged: Most of them have status in society, have strong family connections, and chose Islam after considerable research and study. For example, Joe Ahmed-Dobson, son of the former Minister of Health, was 16 years old when a friend gave him a copy of the Qur'an as a gift. In it, he says, he found the answers to all his questions. He officially accepted Islam at the age of 23, and was supported by his family in this decision. Apparently, his father gives him Islamic books as Christmas presents every year. Among recent converts in England are people like the son of John Birt, the former general director of BBC, and the daughter of Lord Justice Scott, a prominent judge. Over the past 20 years, an estimated 20,000 people in England have converted and, as in many other countries, the movement toward Islam has accelerated. According to the Manchester Mosque, after the events of 9/11, sixteen individuals accepted Islam there alone. One of the interesting things revealed by such research on converts is that far more women are turning to Islam. In America, one in four converts is a woman; in England, the figure is one in two.74

Muslims in England

(Above) The Queen's first time in a mosque, England has one of the densest Muslim populations. The English press often reports on Muslim issues. One of these special reports, "Special Report: Muslims in Britain," was posted on the BBC's Internet site. The Telegraph carried an article, "My dad buys me books about Islam,"on how English people accepted Islam. Women form the great majority of English converts.(Below) English women stream to Islam

Islam also is growing rapidly in Denmark. After the official Protestant religion comes Islam, and the number of Catholics is slightly less than the number of Muslims. Of the 5.5 million Danes, 3% are Muslims.75 This growth in the number of Muslims is the result of high immigration. This increase was discussed in the Danish press in a report entitled "The Future of Denmark: Every Second Person is a Muslim." Research done by the well-known sociologist Eyvind Vesselbo, who lives in Denmark, shows that the number of Muslims in Denmark will increase considerably in the near future.76


Reports of Islam in The Media

Interestingly, the number of objective reports in the Western media introducing Islam has increased. Especially after the 9/11 attacks, people were curious about Islam and were seeking accurate information. In response, the media produced various reports and programs. The BBC broadcast documentary films about Islam on many television channels, invited special guests to appear on talk-shows, and produced a program series introducing Islam. Furthermore, many television stations added special sections about Islam on their Internet pages to provide information about Islam's basic requirements, history, sayings of the Prophet, and Qur'anic verses. Web sites that provide more comprehensive information also are provided.

(Above) Islam is the number one religion in Europe, (Middle) Islam on Arte TV, (Below) Curiosity about Islam in Europe after 9/ 11.More Europeans are converting to Islam than ever before, and many documentaries about Islam have been shown on European television since 9/11.

The awakening of Islam in Europe, Islam, a sun that has shone for 1,000 years.This article in Newsweek examines Islam in Europe and reports that Islam is constantly gaining influence in such countries as Italy, England, and France. For example, in East London, where chapels go empty, mosques open to take their place. In France, many buildings have been converted into mosques and are filled to overflowing by devout Muslims. Minarets rise in Madrid, and a grand mosque is being built in Italy.

In addition, many magazines and newspapers contain articles about Islam to answer people's questions. For example, the October 1, 2001, edition of Time magazine carried an article by Karen Armstrong entitled "True, Peaceful Face of Islam," which provides the following information:

The very word Islam, which means "surrender," is related to the Arabic salam, or peace. When the Prophet Muhammad brought the inspired scripture known as the Koran to the Arabs in the early 7th century A.D., a major part of his mission was devoted precisely to bringing an end to the kind of mass slaughter we witnessed in New York City and Washington.... In the Koran, therefore, the only permissible war is one of self-defense. Muslims may not begin hostilities (2:190). Warfare is always evil, but sometimes you have to fight in order to avoid ... persecution.... The Koran quotes the Torah, the Jewish scriptures, which permits people to retaliate eye for eye, tooth for tooth, but like the Gospels, the Koran suggests that it is meritorious to forgo revenge in a spirit of charity (5:45).... Islam is not addicted to war ... The primary meaning of the word jihad is not "holy war" but "struggle".... In a statement in which the Arabic is extremely emphatic, the Koran insists, "There must be no coercion in matters of faith!" (2:256). Constantly Muslims are enjoined to respect Jews and Christians, the "People of the Book," who worship the same God (29:46). In words quoted by Muhammad in one of his last public sermons, God tells all human beings, "O people! We have formed you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another" (49: 13)-not to conquer, convert, subjugate, revile, or slaughter, but to reach out toward others with intelligence and understanding.77

Islam in France
Preparations Have Begun To Make Islam An Official Religion in Sweden

Today, approximately 5% of the French population is Muslim. Islam, now France's second largest religion, is attracting the attention of the French media.

(Above) Islam is an official religion in Swedenen, (Middle) The ambassador of Sweden to Istanbul: Islam is a European religion, (Below) Time magazine reported on the opening of Sweden's largest mosque in Stockholm. Research shows that there are more than 300,000 Muslims in Sweden, whose total population is about 10 million, and the government and people are very accepting of them. Last year, the government made a special allocation of funds to translate the Qur'an into Swedish for them and to build a big mosque where they can worship comfortably. Along with these projects, another fund has been established to support schools that provide Islamic education. In addition, there is now an initiative to make Islam an officially recognized religion.

The Growth Of Islam in Belgium

(Left) Belgium's largest mosque opens, (Right) In Belgium the number of Muslims has reached 450,000.
At the beginning of the 1990s, Belgium had about 285,000 Muslims; by 1998, there were 350,000 Muslims. This is 2.5% of the Belgian population. There are now 240 places of Islamic worship in Belgium, and Islam continues to grow rapidly.1 Today, Belgium has more Muslims than Protestants and Jews, and is the second largest religious community after Catholicism. The Belgian government has always been well-disposed toward Belgian Muslims and, as early as 1974, passed a law to protect their freedom of belief and worship. According to this law, Muslims are as free as Catholics, Protestants, and Jews to practice and teach their religion. One of its most important provisions deals with teaching Islam in state schools. At present, Belgium has about 700 Muslim teachers in state schools. They receive salaries and expenses from the government. The Belgian government also covers the cost of building worship centers and hiring clergy. This support allows Islam to spread, and is indicated by the opening of the Genk Yunus Emre Mosque on January 28, 2002. Mayor Jef Gabriels, who attended the opening, considered this day a holiday, and the vicar Jan Boonen expressed his thoughts as follows: "There's a house, people live in it; there's a house, a hospital is being built; there's a house, a bank is being built. But this house is a different house. This is God's house, and we come here only to bow down to him."21. Prof. Herman De Ley, "Muslims in Belgium: Enemies from within or fellow Citizens," http://isim.leidenuniv.nl/newsletter/1/forum/01AE35.html 2. Zaman, Metin Keskin, January 28, 2001

An Italian Ambassador Becomes A Muslim
The Rise of Islam is the Cover Story in der Spiegel

The Western press and news agencies were attracted by Torquato Cardilli's, Italian ambassador to Saudi Arabia, conversion to Islam. Above we see a Reuters' report entitled "Rome's Envoy to Saudi Arabia Converts to Islam." Actually, Torquoato Cardilli was the second ambassador who converted to Islam. Before him, Ambassador Mario Scialoja also had converted to Islam. Having converted when he was Rome's permanent ambassador to the United Nations, Scialoja was later appointed ambassador to Saudi Arabia. Cardilli had spent many years in Muslim countries, and his conversion shows once again the rapid growth of Islam in Italy. About 1 million Muslims live in Italy and in the last two or three years about 5,000 people have converted.11. Reuters, November 26, 2001

(Above) The Prophet Muhammad on the cover of Der Spiegel; Islam's rapid rise throughout the world was the cover story of the well-known German magazine, Der Spiegel. This issue contained a 20-page report entitled "Who was the Prophet Mohammed?" and pointed out that true Islam had nothing to do with terrorism. It also presented the views of various historians, philosophers, sociologists, and politicians. The report states that no religion is spreading as fast as Islam, and quotes the words of prominent English philosopher Ernest Gellner: "Islam is the blueprint of a social order. It holds that a set of rules exists, eternal, divinely ordained, and independent of the will of men, which defines the proper ordering of society."

Television Documentaries Present Islam
The German President Visits A Mosque

(Above) Islam on English television, (Below) Much interest in the documentary about Prophet Muhammad (saas), Islam's rapid rise has been the topic of many television programs. In addition to concentrating on political and social issues, they also provide comprehensive documentaries on Islamic history and moral teachings. One example is the English project called the "The BBC Two's Islam Season," which was prepared as a 2-week series. Costing 1 million pounds to produce, it was to present the truth about Islam. A similar program was broadcast on the French-German channel: Arte. This documentary series, which took 3 years to produce, presents a detailed account of the Prophet's life and Islamic history.

(Left) The German president in a mosque, (Right) German president Rau: West Islam dialogue is necessary;German president Johannes Rau, an avid supporter of interfaith dialogue, expressed himself on this matter at a meeting of the World Council of Churches in Potsdam on January 29-30, 2001. The Council declared the next 10 years to be the "Decade to Overcome Violence." Rau stated that this was one of Europe's most important social initiatives. He stated further that freedom and justice were equally important, and that Social Darwinism had to be definitely rejected.1 Moreover, Rau showed the importance he placed on establishing dialogue by his visit to the Fatih Mosque in Marl. During this visit, arranged for the Ramadan Eid, he stated that Muslim holidays were as important as Christian ones, and that the struggle against terror was not related to Islam. 1. Notes on Church-State Affairs, vol, 43, Autumn 2001, no.2

(Above) Islam, a part of life in Germany, (Middle) Europe seeks for true Islam, (Below) German Muslims. The number of German converts is also high. Germany, which has a dense Muslim population, has undertaken various initiatives to provide a better understanding and correct presentation of Islam. Among these efforts are the lessons in Islam, which will be given in German schools.

Above we see Europe's largest mosque: the mosque in Rome

Islam in Denmark
Islam in the Educational System in Europe

Islam is the fastest growing religion in Denmark. This growth is fostered by the warm relations with the Danish government. One of the most striking instances of this support was an historical first: Danish state television broadcast a Friday sermon delivered in the mosque of the Turkish Cultural Center.

(Below) Islamic lesson in German; In Sweden guides to Islam will be distribnuted free to students, Above: A New York Times' article entitled "Austrian School Drama: Crucifix Meets Ramadan," reports on the Muslims' education rights in Austrian schools. In Europe's many Islamic schools, the state curriculum includes courses introducing Islam. Certainly, this initiative will be the most effective way to combat radicalism and the foundation stone in any dialogue established between the two cultures.


61. "Europe's Muslims Worry Bishops," National Catholic Reporter, October 22, 1999.
62. Ibid.
63. "Muslims in Europe," The Economist, October 18, 2001.
64. Time, December 24, 2001.
65. AktŘel, 1999.
66. Blasco Ibanez, A la Sombra de la Catedral, Madrid t.y., 22-23.
67. http://charlestupperjr.blogspot.com/2002_03_01_charlestupperjr_archive.html.
68. "Islam's Contribution to Europe's Renaissance," The Wisdom Fund, http://www.twf.org/Library/Renaissance.html.
69. The New York Times, November 20, 2001.
70. "Prince Charls' Latest Speech on Islam," http://www.sunnah.org/nl/v0104/prince.htm.
71. "Prince Joins Ramadan Ceremony," BBC News, November 23, 2001.
72. "Prince Charles Wins the Hearts of Muslim Youth," The Muslim News, February 22, 2002.
73. Ibid.
74. "My Dad Buys Me Books about Islam," The Telegraph, December 31, 2001.
75. http://www.islam.dk/.
76. Milliyet, October 12, 2001.
77. Time, October 1 2001.