From Non-Being to Being: The Big Bang
you know that everything you see around you, your own body, the house
you live in, the armchair you're sitting in, your mother and father, the
trees, birds, soil and fruit, in short, all living things and inanimate
matter you can ever imagine, gained life through the coming together of
atoms caused by the "Big Bang"? Were you aware of the fact that, after
this explosion, perfect order in the universe came to exist? What, then,
is the "Big Bang"?
Over the last century, a host of experiments, observations and calculations
carried out using advanced technology have revealed beyond any doubt
that the universe had a beginning. Scientists have determined that the
universe is in a constant state of expansion. And they have concluded
that, since the universe expands, if it could travel backwards in time,
the universe must have begun this expansion from a single point. Indeed,
the conclusion that science has reached today is that the universe originated
from the explosion of this single point. This explosion is called the
Creation of a perfect order after a "Big Bang" is not a phenomenon
that can be seen as an ordinary event at all. Consider the fact that
thousands of kinds of explosions often occur on Earth, but no order
develops as a result of them. All of them rather lead to devastating,
damaging, destructive results. For example, if atom or hydrogen bombs,
volcanic eruptions, natural gas explosions, and the explosions occurring
in the sun are looked at, we can see that their effects are always harmful.
A constructive or positive result is never gained as the result of an
explosion. However, according to the scientific data attained by means
of modern technology, the millennia-distant "Big Bang" led to a transition
from non-being to being, in fact to a very orderly and harmonious existence.
Now, let us think over an example as follows: Under the ground, a dynamite
explosion occurs and, after this explosion, the most magnificent palace
the world has ever seen, with ornate and beautiful windows, doors and
furniture, suddenly appears. Does it seem reasonable to argue, "This
came into existence by chance"? Could such a thing spring into being
on its own? Certainly not!
The universe which came into being after the "Big Bang" is such a magnificent,
meticulously planned and marvelous system that it certainly cannot be
compared to a mere earthly palace. In this situation, it would be utterly
senseless to claim that the universe came into being on its own. The
universe instantaneously came into being from non-being. This shows
us the existence of a Creator Who created matter from nothingness and
Who keeps every moment of it under His control. He is the All-Wise and
the All-Mighty. This Creator is Allah, the Most Strong.
THE CONCEPT OF GREATNESS IN SPACE
the universe, countless systems operate. Allah keeps all these systems
under His control even while we are not aware of it, for example, while
we are reading, walking or sleeping. Allah created the universe along
with its countless details to make people comprehend His boundless might.
In the Qur'an, Allah addresses people and explains the reason for the
creation of order in the universe as, "So that you might know that
Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things
in His knowledge." (Surat at-Talaq: 12) This order contains so many
details that man cannot possibly know where to begin to think about it.
For example, everybody knows that the universe is quite vast. However,
when we begin to think of what kind of vastness this is in a real sense,
we come across concepts that are a breed apart from what we can normally
comprehend. The diameter of the sun is 103 times greater than that of
the Earth. Let's explain this with a comparison. If we compare the Earth
to a marble, then the sun is a sphere that is two times larger then
a football. The interesting thing here is the distance between them.
In order to set up a model that mirrors the actual scale, we need to
put a distance spanning approximately 280 meters (920 feet) between
the marble-sized Earth and the football-sized sun. And as for the stars
existing beyond our own solar system, they need to be placed entire
With this comparison, you might imagine that the solar system is a
quite large place. However, when we compare it to the Milky Way Galaxy
where it is situated, it is dwarfed in comparison. For, in the Milky
Way Galaxy, there are about 250 billion stars like our own sun, and
most of them are much more massive.
Our sun is located on one of the arms of this spiral-shaped galaxy.
The interesting thing, however, is that the Milky Way Galaxy is a very
"small" place too, when we consider the overall context of outer space.
For there are other galaxies in space too-according to some estimates,
as many as 300 billion altogether…
Even these few examples we have supplied about the dimensions and vast
distances between the universe's celestial bodies will suffice to show
the incomparability of Allah's artistry in creation, the fact that He
has no partner in creation, and that He is All-Powerful. Allah calls
on people to think over these facts as follows:
Are you stronger in structure or is heaven? He
built it. He raised its vault high and made it level. (Surat an-Nazi'at:
THE SOLAR SYSTEM'S PERFECT ORDER
you go outside, the sunlight strikes your face without bothering you,
and you owe this to the perfect order existing within the solar system.
The sun, which conveys a pleasant warmth and light for our benefit, is
only, in fact, like a deep pit consisting of red gas clouds. It is made
up of whirlpools of giant flames which gush from the boiling surface to
millions of kilometers away, and of giant tornados rising to the surface
from the bottom. These could be fatal to mankind. Yet, the atmosphere
and the magnetic field of the Earth filter all the deadly harmful rays
of the sun before they reach us. It is this perfect order in the solar
system that makes the Earth a livable planet.
When we look at the structure of the solar system, we find a very delicate
balance. What protects the planets of the solar system from splitting
off from the system and being hurled into the freezing cold of outer
space is the balance between the gravity of the sun and the centrifugal
force of the planets. The sun attracts all the planets through the great
force of gravity it exerts, while they continuously counter this attraction
by means of their centrifugal force owing to their moving in their orbits.
But if these planets rotated at a slightly slower speed, they would
be attracted by the sun so strongly that they would plunge into the
solar giant and be swallowed in a huge explosion. The opposite of this
is also possible. If the planets rotated at a greater speed, this time
the gravitational force of the sun wouldn't be enough to hold them and
the planets would be hurled into the void of outer space. However, a
very delicate balance has been established, and the system continues
to exist because it maintains this balance.
In the meantime, it is important to note that the above-mentioned balance
is established for each planet separately because each planet's distance
from the sun is unique. In addition, their masses are different. For
this reason, for each one of them, a different rotation speed has been
established so that they can avoid both colliding with the sun and being
hurled off into outer space.
This example constitutes only minor evidence for the magnificent balance
in the solar system. Anyone who possesses reason can understand that
the balance which puts giant planets and the entire solar system into
order, and which moreover keeps this order for day after day and century
after century, cannot have come into existence by chance. It is evident
that this order has been delicately calculated. Allah, the All-Powerful,
shows us, with the perfect details He has created in the universe, that
everything is under His control. Astronomers such as Kepler and Galileo,
scientists who worked to uncover the extraordinarily sensitive balance
in the solar system, stated many times that this system indicated a
very obvious design and constituted evidence for the sovereignty of
Allah over the entire universe. Allah creates and holds everything with
His boundless knowledge; He is All-Powerful.
THE PEERLESS PLANET: EARTH
for a moment about what is necessary for a man to survive. Water, the
sun, oxygen, the atmosphere, plants and animals… All kinds of details,
all kinds of conditions you can or can't think of at that moment are naturally
available on the Earth. In addition, when we investigate further, we can
see that all these vital needs have a web of interrelated details, and
that all these details exist in their full splendor on Earth. Everything
on Earth, its living things, plants, the sky, and the seas, all these
have been created in the best and most complete way in order to suit the
existence and survival of humanity.
Along with the Earth, there are also other planets in our solar system.
However, among these planets, the only planet that is suitable for life
is Earth. The distance of the Earth from the sun, the rotational speed
of the Earth on its axis, the inclination of its axis to its orbit,
the structure of the Earth's surface and many other independent factors
much like these enable our planet to enjoy a warm temperature which
is appropriate for life and to diffuse this warmth all over the Earth
in a homogeneous way. The composition of the Earth's atmosphere and
the size of the Earth are also just as they should be. The light coming
to us from the sun, the water we drink, and the foods we enjoy are extremely
suitable for our lives.
In short, any sort of close look at the planet we live on will show
us that the Earth was designed especially for man. For us to see that
the conditions on Earth were specially designed, it will be enough to
take a rough look at conditions on other planets. Take Mars, for example.
The atmosphere of Mars is a toxic mixture containing a heavy dose of
carbon dioxide. There is no water on the surface of the planet. Huge
craters caused by the impact of massive meteors are obvious in the picture
on the right. As for the weather, monster storms and sandstorms which
last for months on end are quite common. The temperature averages -53o
C (-64o F).
Considering these features as a whole, Mars, which among our neighboring
planets shares the most in common with the Earth, is clearly a dead
planet where life is not possible. This comparison palpably demonstrates
that the features which make the Earth a livable place are truly tremendous
blessings. The One Who has created the entire universe, formed perfectly
its stars, planets, mountains and seas, is Allah. Throughout our lives,
we should be thankful for His creations and blessings, and take Him
as a friend and protector. Allah, Who is the owner of all these things,
is the One Who is worthy of all praise. Allah informs us of this fact
in the Qur'an:
Is He Who creates like him who does not create?
So will you not pay heed? If you tried to number Allah's blessings,
you could never count them. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
(Surat an-Nahl: 17-18)
THE EXPLICITLY DESIGNED COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
might mean to you nothing more than inhaling air and then letting it back
out. However, for this process to work properly, a system which is perfect
from all aspects has been established. We need not make the slightest
effort whatsoever in order to breathe. In fact, perhaps most people have
never consciously thought about the process at all. Everybody needs to
breathe continuously, from the moment we come into this world until we
die. All the necessary conditions, in both our body and our environment,
have been created by Allah and, therefore, we are able to breathe easily
in this way.
First of all, for a person to breathe, it is necessary that the balance
of gasses in the atmosphere be arranged just right. Even a slight change
in this balance could prove fatal but such failures do not occur at
all, because the Earth's atmosphere is a unique mixture that was designed
as a combination of very specific conditions all mixed together in a
way that functions flawlessly.
The Earth's atmosphere is made up of nitrogen (77%), oxygen (21%),
carbon dioxide (1%), argon and other gasses. Let's begin with the most
important of these gasses, that is, oxygen.
Oxygen is very important because living things need this gas in order
to live. To get oxygen, we breathe. The oxygen ratio in the air is maintained
at an extremely delicate balance.
The atmosphere's preservation of the balance of its oxygen ratio is
realized by means of a perfect "recycling" system. Human beings and
animals continuously consume oxygen while they produce and expel carbon
dioxide gas, which is poisonous for them. Plants, on the other hand,
carry out just the opposite process and maintain survival by transforming
carbon dioxide into oxygen. Every day, billions of tons of oxygen are
released into the atmosphere by plants in this way.
Now, if human beings and animals carried out the same chemical reactions
as do plants, the Earth, in a very short time, would become an unlivable
planet. If both animals and plants produced oxygen, the atmosphere would
become extremely combustible and the smallest spark would cause huge
fires. Ultimately, in such a scenario, the Earth would be reduced to
a cinder. If, on the other hand, both plants and animals produced carbon
dioxide, then the oxygen in the atmosphere would quickly run out and,
in short order, all living things would begin to die of suffocation.
All this shows that Allah created the Earth's atmosphere especially for
human life. The universe is not an uncontrolled, chaotic place. It has
been planned in every detail and Allah, the possessor of eternal power,
brought it into being.