Harun Yahya - Why Darwinism is incompatible with the Qur'an - Chapter 3
Why Darwinism is Incompatible With the Qur'an

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Chapter 3
The Science of Allah's Creation

So far, we have examined the grave error committed by Muslim evolutionists who accept the assertion that Allah used evolution to create living things. Unlike other evolutionists, such people do not directly say that life emerged by chance. However, by maintaining that Allah used evolution in His creation, they willingly or otherwise support Darwinism on some points. According to their mistaken perspective, Allah must have used such evolutionary mechanisms as mutation and natural selection.

However, science has demonstrated that neither natural selection nor mutation can create a new species. In other words, they have no evolutionary force. Those who support the idea of evolutionary creation maintain that Allah uses mutations to change a living thing's genetic data so that it can acquire useful organs, or that Allah first creates primitive creatures and then employs natural selection to turn them into more complex ones and to perfect them. In other words, He uses natural selection to add a new organ, lets an already-existing organ atrophy, or do away with it altogether in order to turn one species into another.

It is quite normal for people who are unaware of the latest scientific developments to make such assumptions, particularly if they wish to support evolution. However, such a claim flies in the face of scientific fact. Moreover, as we shall see later, the Qur'an does not mention such a thing.

One thing needs to be made quite clear: Of course Allah could have employed evolution to create living things if He had so willed. Yet the Qur'an contains no sign of evolution and not one verse supports the evolutionists' claim of the stage-by-stage emergence of species. Science also reveals the falsity of such a claim. Since the situation is so clear, there is no way for a Muslim to justify his/her support of it. The only possible reasons for such errors are a lack of information, an inferiority complex when dealing with evolutionists, and the belief that since evolutionists are in the majority they must necessarily be right.

Allah Created the Universe from Nothing

Allah creates everything, in the form and at the time that He chooses, without the use of any model and out of nothing. Since He is exalted above any defect and is rich beyond any need. He has no need of any cause, vehicle, or stages for His creation. Nobody should be deceived by the fact that everything is linked to given causes and natural laws. But Allah is beyond all these causes and laws, since He created them.

Allah, the Lord of the Earth and the heavens, can also do away with these causes if He so wills. For instance, He can create people who do not need oxygen to survive, and therefore do not need any lungs. Given this, why would He "need" to perfect the lung by making it evolve over time or through any other mechanism? It is therefore completely wrong for people to think of Allah's greatness and might as being limited to their own feelings and reason. We can have knowledge only to the extent that He permits.

Allah can use particular stages in His creation if He so wills. For example, He produces a plant from a seed or a human being from the coming together of a sperm and an egg cell. Yet these stages, as we shall see later, have nothing to do with evolution and have no room for chance or coincidence. Every stage in the emergence of a plant, or the turning of a single cell into a human being "in the best of forms," happens thanks to the perfect systems created by His infinite might.

There are signs of Allah's infinite power and intelligence at every stage of a flower's development. It is Allah, the Lord of all the worlds, Who turns a seed into a beautifully colored flower.

Allah willed and created the Earth and the heavens, all that lies between, and all living and non-living things. This is very easy for Him, as indicated in the Qur'an:

He created the heavens and Earth with truth. The day He says "Be!" it is. His speech is Truth... (Qur'an, 6:73)

Our Word to a thing when We will it is just to say to it "Be!" and it is. (Qur'an, 16: 40)

He gives life and causes to die. When He decides on something, He just says to it, "Be!" and it is. (Qur'an, 40:68)

It is Allah's infinite might and wisdom that turns a cell, invisible to the naked eye, into a thinking, speaking, and breathing human being.

Creation is very easy for Allah. As these verses reveal, all He has to do is say "Be!," thereby willing it to be so. Many verses reveal that He created the universe and living things in perfect form. It is a grave mistake for Muslims to adhere to forced explanations in the face of this evident truth and to make such specious claims that Allah employed evolution to create and used mutation, natural selection, and transitional stages between apes and humans. It is quite wrong to put forward such accounts, for which there is no evidence in either the Qur'an or science, in the hope of being accepted by evolutionists.

Allah makes all the laws in the universe and gives them the form He chooses, brings about what He wills and when He wills it, permeates everything in the Earth and the heavens, and rules everything with His power. Yet some people do not fully comprehend His might and thus judge Him based upon their own limited powers. Allah reveals their existence in the Qur'an:

They do not measure Allah with His true measure when they say: "Allah would not send down anything to a mere human being."... (Qur'an, 6:91)

They do not measure Allah with His true measure. Allah is All-Strong, Almighty. (Qur'an, 22:74)

They do not measure Allah with His true measure. The whole Earth will be a mere handful for Him on the Day of Rising the heavens folded up in His right hand. Glory be to Him! He is exalted above the partners they ascribe! (Qur'an, 39:67)

Contrary to what those who believe in evolutionary creation suggest, Allah did not first create apes and then cause them to evolve into humans through flawed transitional forms with missing organs. Rather, as the Qur'an reveals, Allah created man in the most perfect manner:

We created man in the finest mold. (Qur'an, 95:4)

He created the heavens and Earth with truth and formed you, giving you the best of forms. And He is your final destination. (Qur'an, 64:3)

Ever since the first man, all human beings have been the result of Allah's flawless creation. Throughout history, all human beings have come into being through the stages Allah commanded.

The above verses are some of the proofs that Allah created man in perfect form, in other words, the form that he has now. Of course, man also has several incapacities and weaknesses, all of which remind him of his poverty before his Lord. Deformities and disabilities are the results of a purposeful creation, for they serve as reminders for those who see them and as a test for those who carry them.

As forms and species, Allah created all living things instantaneously and perfectly, with no need for evolution at all. That evident truth is revealed in the Qur'an:

He is Allah - the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the heavens and Earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Qur'an, 59:24)

The Qur'an describes how simple creation is for Allah:

Does He Who created the heavens and Earth not have the power to create the same again? Yes indeed! He is the Creator, the All-Knowing. (Qur'an, 36:81)

Your creation and rising is only like that of a single self. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing. (Qur'an, 31:28)


Another important point ignored by those who believe in evolutionary creation is Allah's different forms of creation. Allah has produced living things that differ significantly from humans and animals, such as angels and the jinn. This matter will be discussed in the following pages.

Two-, Three-, and Four-Winged Angels

Angels are beings that always obey Allah's commands. The Qur'an describes their creation as follows:

Praise be to Allah, the Bringer into Being of the heavens and Earth, He Who made the angels messengers, with wings - two, three, or four. He adds to creation in any way He wills. Allah has power over all things. (Qur'an, 35:1)

As we can see from this description, the forms of angels differ considerably from those of human beings. Allah draws attention to the different forms of creation in the above verse.

Verses also show how angels are at Allah's command and obey Him:

Everything in the heavens and every creature on Earth prostrates to Allah, as do the angels. They are not puffed up with pride. They fear their Lord above them and do everything that they are ordered to do. (Qur'an, 16:49-50)

The Messiah would never disdain to be a servant of Allah, nor would the angels near to Him. If any do disdain to worship Him and grow arrogant, He will in any case gather them all to Him. (Qur'an, 4:172)

You who believe! Safeguard yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones. Harsh, terrible angels are in charge of it, who do not disobey Allah in respect of any order He gives them and carry out what they are ordered to do. (Qur'an, 66:6)

In addition, angels were created before man. In fact, Allah told the angels when He was going to create Adam, the first human being, and commanded them to prostrate before him.

At the same time, Allah gave Prophet Adam, peace be upon him, knowledge that was different from that of the angels, and taught him the names of things. Angels do not possess that knowledge. As the Qur'an states:

When your Lord said to the angels, "I am putting a vicegerent on Earth," they said, "Why put on it one who will cause corruption on it and shed blood when we glorify You with praise and proclaim Your purity?" He said, "I know what you do not know." He taught Adam the names of all things. Then He arrayed them before the angels and said, "Tell me the names of these, if you are telling the truth." They said, "Glory be to You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. You are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise." He said, "Adam, tell them their names." When he had told them their names, He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the Unseen of the heavens and Earth, and I know what you make known and what you hide?" We said to the angels, "Prostrate to Adam!" and they prostrated, with the exception of Iblis. He refused and was arrogant and was one of the disbelievers. (Qur'an, 2:30-34)

Jinn are Created from Fire

Like angels, the jinn's appearance also differs from that of man. The verses below show that man was created from clay, while the jinn were created from fire:

We created mankind out of dried clay formed from fetid black mud. We created the jinn before, out of the fire of a searing wind. (Qur'an, 15:26-27)

He created man from dry earth like baked clay, and He created the jinn from a fusion of fire. (Qur'an, 55:14-15)

In the Qur'an, Allah also reveals His purpose in creating man and the jinn:

I only created jinn and man to worship Me. (Qur'an, 51:56)

It is clear from this that although man and the jinn are very different beings, they both were created to worship only Allah by living by the values He prescribed. He has revealed in many verses that both angels and the jinn have some characteristics that differ from human characteristics. For instance, both can transport matter:

He (Sulayman) said, "Council! Who among you will bring me her (the Queen of Saba's) throne before they come to me in submission?" An audacious one among the jinn said, "I will bring it to you before you get up from your seat. I am strong and trustworthy enough to do it." (Qur'an, 27:38-39)

The Qur'an also says that the jinn, just like the angels, were created before man. When He created Prophet Adam, peace be upon him, Allah commanded the angels and the jinn to prostrate before him. After that, He reveals that Satan is one of the jinn:

When We said to the angels, "Prostrate yourselves to Adam," they prostrated, with the exception of Iblis. He was one of the jinn and wantonly deviated from his Lord's command. Do you take him and his offspring as protectors apart from Me when they are your enemy? How evil is the exchange the wrongdoers make! (Qur'an, 18:50)

Creation is a simple matter for Allah, Who can create from nothing and with no previous cause. Just as He created the angels and the jinn in different forms from nothing, He also created man as a separate being from nothing and with no need for evolution. The same applies to other living things, such as animals and plants. Allah created all of these spontaneously out of nothing and without having them evolve - in other words, without turning one species into another. As we saw earlier, the stages Allah uses in this creation which we mentioned before have nothing to do with evolutionist coincidence or random events, for each is the product of the flawless systems Allah's might and sovereignty brought about.

How the Bird Created from Clay by the Prophet 'Isa Came to Life

Allah endowed Prophet 'Isa, peace be upon him, with metaphysical properties in the life of this world, as seen in: "... 'Isa, son of Maryam, of high esteem in this world and the hereafter, and one of those brought near." (Qur'an, 3:45) He came into the world with no father, spoke while still in the cradle, and cured the sick in a miraculous way.

Moreover, when Prophet 'Isa, peace be upon him, made a clay object in the shape of a bird and breathed into it, the bird came to life by Allah's will. This fact is related in the Qur'an:

As a Messenger to the tribe of Israel, saying: "I have brought you a sign from your Lord. I will create the shape of a bird out of clay for you and then breathe into it and it will be a bird by Allah's permission..." (Qur'an, 3:49)

Remember when Allah said, "'Isa, son of Maryam, remember My blessing to you and to your mother when I reinforced you with the Purest Spirit so that you could speak to people in the cradle and when you were fully grown; and when I taught you the Book and Wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospels; and when you created a bird-shape out of clay by My permission, and then breathed into it and it became a bird by My permission..." (Qur'an, 5:110)

Allah can spontaneously create a living thing in that way. This is one of His miracles, and an important truth that evolutionist Muslims should not ignore.

A similar example mentions Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and reveals how Allah endows inanimate things with life:

When Ibrahim said, "My Lord, show me how You bring the dead to life." He asked, "Do you not then believe?" He replied, "Indeed I do! But so that my heart may be at peace." He said, "Take four birds and train them to yourself. Then put a part of them on each mountain and call to them; they will come rushing to you. Know that Allah is Almighty, All-Wise." (Qur'an, 2:260)

How Prophet Zakariyya's Barren Wife had a Child

One example of miraculous creation concerns the joyous tidings received by Prophet Zakariyya, peace be upon him, that his barren wife would give birth to a child:

(Allah said,) "Zakariyya! We give you the good news of a boy named Yahya, a name we have given to no one else before." He said, "My Lord! How can I have a boy when my wife is barren and I have reached advanced old age?" (An angel) said, "It will be so!"... (Qur'an, 19:7-9)

As the verses reveal, creation is a simple matter for Allah, Who requires no previous cause to create. He endowed this Prophet with a child, and by commanding that it should "Be!," this Prophet's wife spontaneously became pregnant. Our Lord reveals in the continuation of the verse:

... Your Lord says, "That is easy for Me to do. I created you before, when you were not anything." (Qur'an, 19:9)


Creation and resurrection are entirely in Allah's hands, and, as is the case with creation, He has no need of external causes when it comes to resurrection. There are many examples of this in the Qur'an.

The Qur'an reveals that after people die and are buried, they will be resurrected on the Day of Judgment:

That is their repayment for rejecting Our signs and saying, "What, when we are bones and crumbled dust, will we then be raised up as a new creation?" Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and Earth, has the power to create the like of them, and has appointed fixed terms for them of which there is no doubt? But the wrongdoers still spurn anything but unbelief. (Qur'an, 17:98-99)

As we have seen, disbelievers do not believe that people will be re-created after dying and becoming one with the soil. This example summarizes the situation as regards the theory of evolution. Our Lord, Who will re-form people's bodies from nothing on the Day of Judgment, also created the first man, Prophet Adam, from nothing. These verses are very important for those who believe in the Qur'an but who nevertheless insist upon believing in evolutionist ideas.

In the words: "You have come to Us all alone, just as We created you at first, leaving behind you everything We bestowed on you..." (Qur'an, 6:94), the Qur'an points to the resurrection of man on the Day of Judgment. It makes it clear that this creation will be like their "first creation." Each person, who will have died and become one with the soil, will be reborn through a re-creation in the hereafter and assume a human form. That is why the first human creation resembles this and happens not stage by stage, but all at once and in a miraculous manner.

There are many examples of resurrection in the Qur'an. For instance, Allah allowed the tribe of Prophet Musa, peace be upon him, to experience it, as He killed them and then brought them back to life. This is described in the Qur'an as follows:

And when you said, "Musa, we will not believe in you until we see Allah with our own eyes." So the thunder-bolt struck you dead while you were looking. Then We brought you back to life after your death, so that perhaps you would show thanks. (Qur'an, 2:55-56)

The Qur'an contains a similar account again involving the tribe of Prophet Musa, peace be upon him. Allah had commanded them to strike a corpse with the flesh of a previously killed cow. As Allah reveals in the verse, He did this to show them that man would be resurrected and to ensure that they had belief. This is clearly a miracle. However, as we shall see in the verse's following part, these people's hearts again grew hard after the miracle took place:

Remember when you killed someone and violently accused each other of it, and Allah brought out what you were hiding. We said, "Hit him with part of it!" In that way Allah gives life to the dead, and He shows you His Signs so that hopefully you will understand. Then your hearts became hardened after that, so they were like rocks or even harder still. There are some rocks from which rivers gush out, and others that split open and water pours out, and others that crash down from fear of Allah. Allah is not unaware of what you do. (Qur'an, 2:72-74)

Allah gives another example:

In this way Allah makes His signs clear to you, so that hopefully you will use your intellect. What do you think about those who left their homes in thousands in fear of death? Allah said to them, "Die!" and then brought them back to life. Allah shows great favor to mankind, but most people are not grateful. (Qur'an, 2:242-243)

The Qur'an relates another example: the situation facing someone who did not believe in resurrection after death. According to the verses, Allah caused the person to be dead for 100 years and then resurrected him. However, even though so much time had gone by, the person thought that he had been dead only for one day or even less. When he was told the truth, he finally believed, as we see in the following verse:

Or the one who passed by a town which had fallen into ruin? He asked, "How can Allah restore this to life when it has died?" Allah caused him to die for a hundred years and then brought him back to life. Then He asked, "How long have you been here?" He replied, "I have been here for a day or part of a day." He said, "Not so! You have been here for a hundred years. Look at your food and drink - it has not gone bad - and look at your donkey so that We can make you a sign for all mankind. Look at the bones - how We raise them up and clothe them with flesh." When it had become clear to him, he said, "Now I know that Allah has power over all things." (Qur'an, 2:259)

Another example concerns the people of the cave (ashab al-kahf). What distinguishes this story from the others is that in this case the community was not killed, but merely fell asleep for longer than a normal human lifespan.

This group consisted of devout young people who had left their tribe and sought refuge in a cave because their tribe had turned to polytheism and idolatry. However, Allah miraculously caused them to sleep for more than 300 years in the cave, as follows:

So We struck them with drowsiness in the cave for a number of years. (Qur'an, 18:11)

They stayed in their cave for three hundred years and added nine. Say: "Allah knows best how long they stayed. The Unseen of the heavens and Earth belongs to Him. How perfectly He sees, how well He hears! They have no protector apart from Him. Nor does He share His rule with anyone." (Qur'an, 18:25-26)

However, after a time Allah awakened them. The description continues:

Then We woke them up again so that we might see which of the two groups would better calculate the time they had stayed there. We will relate their story to you with truth. They were young men who believed in their Lord, and We increased them in guidance. (Qur'an, 18:12-13)

They did not realize they had been asleep for such a long time. They thought they had only been asleep for a day, or a few hours, whereas it had actually been some three hundred and nine years. The verse in question states:

That was the situation when we woke them up so they could question one another. One of them asked, "How long have you been here?" They replied, "We have been here for a day or part of a day." They said, "Your Lord knows best how long you have been here. Send one of your number into the city with this silver you have, so he can see which food is purest and bring you some of it to eat. But he should go about with caution so that no one is aware of you." (Qur'an, 18:19)

Such examples given in the Qur'an explicitly reveal that Allah has no need of any cause in creation.


In the Qur'an, Allah reveals that He has inspired the bee and told it what it should do:

Your Lord revealed to the bees: "Build dwellings in the mountains and the trees, and also in the structures that people erect. Then eat from every kind of fruit and travel the paths of your Lord, which have been made easy for you to follow." From inside them comes a drink of varying colors, containing healing for mankind. There is certainly a Sign in that for people who reflect. (Qur'an, 16:68-69)

As we know, bees collect pollen and produce honey by mixing pollen with secretions from their own bodies. In order to store the honey and raise their young, they make hexagonal wax cells, all of which are exceedingly ordered, have the same angle, and are generally identical. They build honeycombs with these. Moreover, bees that leave the hive in search of food and always return to it possess special systems Allah creates so that they can find their way home.

For an insect to know about the angles in hexagons, discover the formula for wax and design the systems necessary for producing it in their own bodies, and then fit such information into its own DNA so that future members of the same species will possess the same abilities are all, of course, impossible.

It is self-evident that bees have been taught all of these things by a higher power. In other words, such knowledge has been inspired in them, as the verses reveal. Allah, Who knows all, describes to the bee what it needs to do, and the bee then acts in the full light of that inspiration. Such conscious behavior is clear evidence of creation.

Your lord revealed to the bees: "Build dwellings in themountains and the trees, and also in the structures which men erect.Then eat from every kind of fruit and travel the paths of your Lord, which have been made easy for you to follow." From inside them comes a drink of varying colours, containing healing for mankind. There is certainly a Sign in that for people who reflect. (Qur'an, 16:68-69)

The study of such properties in animals reveals the flawless design and higher consciousness inherent in living things. Such things allow one to understand once again Allah's incomparable might. He has the power to create whatever creature He wills and with whatever attributes He wills, possesses limitless might, and is the Ruler of all.

However, evolutionists believe that such extraordinary features of living things came about by chance. According to this illogical claim, bees learned to calculate angles and managed to transfer that knowledge to other bees by chance. Chance also led to the emergence of bodily systems for producing wax and honey.

Just a few seconds of thought is sufficient to see that such imaginary scenarios are far removed from reason and science. Allah creates bees and gives them consciousness. Such miracles of creation place evolutionists in a dilemma from which they can never escape.


As touched on in the previous section, evolutionists maintain that living things are the work of blind chance and random events. In their view, and despite the fact that there is absolutely no proof to confirm this imaginary thesis, animals possess no consciousness. There is, however, a great deal of evidence to disprove their claims.

Consider the Qur'anic account of Prophet Sulayman, peace be upon him, and a female ant. According to the verses, he heard and understood the ant's words, as narrated in the following verses:

Then, when they reached the Valley of the Ants, an ant said, "Ants! Enter your dwellings so that Sulayman and his troops do not crush you unwittingly." He smiled, laughing at its words, and said, "My Lord, keep me thankful for the blessing You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and keep me acting rightly, pleasing You. And admit me, by Your mercy, among Your righteous servants." (Qur'an, 27:18-19)

As this verse makes clear, one ant addressed the others. Of course, it is out of the question for a creature supposedly "created" by chance to have a special communication system that allows it to address its own community or exhibit behavior indicative of reason and logic. A creature that comes into being by Allah's will displays conscious behavior in the manner and to the extent that Allah wills. It also is possible to communicate with such a creature, if Allah wills it.

As revealed in the Qur'an, Allah enabled Prophet Sulayman, peace be upon him, to understand the language of the ants.

Animals, which according to the theory of evolution, are supposed to lack consciousness in fact display evidence of considerable reason, as we have seen in these two examples. Maybe we cannot expect Darwinists to understand the extraordinary nature of this situation (We free from any imputation those who think sincerely and who follow the dictates of their consciences). However, those who say that they believe in Allah's existence and power really must think about such signs, for they clearly disprove evolution. This, in turn, shows that evolution cannot be defended in any possible way.

Creation Is a Miracle

Ignoring the fact that Allah has the power to create and destroy plays an important role in causing some Muslims to believe in evolution. Such evolutionist Muslims are under the influence of naturalism, which asserts that the laws of nature are fixed and unchanging, and that nothing can take place outside of them. Yet this is a great error. What we mean by "the laws of nature" stem from Allah's creating and maintaining matter in a particular form. In no way can they be considered features that stem from within matter itself. As Allah has made clear, He can alter these laws at any time and act outside of their scope.

We call such actions miracles. That the above-mentioned group of the cave remained alive for more than 300 years is a miracle beyond the laws of nature. Those whom Allah killed and then brought back to life are also miracles. Every event occurs because Allah wills it to occur. Those that occur within the bounds of certain laws are "normal," while the others are miracles.

The point that needs to be understood here is that Allah is not constrained by the laws He created. If He so wills, He can totally reverse all the laws of nature. That is easy for Allah to do.

Since Muslim evolutionists have fallen under the influence of naturalism, which forms the foundation of Darwinism, they try to account for the origin of human and other life in terms of natural laws. They believe that Allah brought living things into existence by means of a creation that is limited by natural laws, and thus imagine that creation was brought about by mutation, natural selection, variation, and one species turning into another. It is a grave error, however, for Muslims to accept such "naturalist" logic, for the miracles described in the Qur'an clearly reveal that such logic is ill-founded.

When we look at those verses that discuss the creation of living things and man, we see that this creation took place in a miraculous way and outside the laws of nature. This is how Allah reveals the creation of living things:

Allah created every animal from water. Some of them go on their bellies, some of them on two legs, and some on four. Allah creates whatever He wills. Allah has power over all things. (Qur'an, 24:45)

This verse points to the main living groups on Earth (reptiles, birds, and mammals) and says that Allah created all of them from water. On closer inspection, these groups were not created "out of each other," as "foreseen" by evolution, but "from water." In other words, they were formed separately from a common material Allah shaped.

Modern science also has made it clear that this common material was water, the basic component of every living body. Mammals' bodies are about 70 percent water. Each living thing's bodily water enables contact between cells, as well as inter-cell and inter-tissue contact. It is an accepted fact that nothing can live without water.

And yet some Muslims misinterpret the above verse and try to give it a meaning more in line with evolution. However, it is obvious that the fact of creation from water has nothing to do with evolution, for that theory does not claim that every living thing emerged from water and evolved. On the contrary, it maintains that living species evolved from one another, an evident contradiction of the fact that all living groups were created from water (in other words, that they were created independently).

The Creation of Man from Clay

In the Qur'an, Allah reveals that man was created in a miraculous manner. To create the first human being, Allah shaped clay, and then breathed a soul into it:

Your Lord said to the angels, "I am going to create a human being out of clay. When I have formed him and breathed My Spirit into him, fall down in prostration to him!" (Qur'an, 38:71-72)

We created man from the purest kind of clay. (Qur'an, 23:12)

Ask them for a ruling: Are they stronger in structure or other things that We have created? We created them from sticky clay. (Qur'an, 37:11)

It can be seen here that man was not created from an ape or other living species, as Muslim evolutionists would have us believe, but from clay, a lifeless substance. Allah miraculously turned that inanimate substance into a human being and breathed a soul into him. There is no "natural evolutionary process" at work here, but rather Allah's miraculous and direct creation. In fact, His words as recorded below show that man was created directly by Allah's power:

He (Allah) said, "Iblis, what prevented you prostrating to what I created with My own two hands? Were you overcome by arrogance, or are you one of the exalted? (Qur'an, 38:75)

In short, the Qur'an contains no "evolutionary" account of the creation of man and living things. On the contrary, it states that Allah created these miraculously from such inanimate substances as water and mud. Despite this, the history of Islam shows that some Muslims were influenced by ancient Greek philosophy, as well as by internal materialist and evolutionary elements, and then tried to adapt that philosophy to the Qur'an. The great Islamic scholar and reformer Imam al-Ghazali (d. 1111) responded to these trends, which emerged in his own day, in his Tahafut al-Falasifa (Incoherence of Philosophers) and other works. However, together with the spread of the theory of evolution during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, "creation by evolution" theses began to reappear in the Islamic world. The next chapter considers the errors made by those Muslims who defend such theses, and analyzes their comments on the Qur'anic verses that they use to justify their position.