The eye might be a window to the outside world, but in our sense of sight
it plays only the role of an instrument. The spot where vision is established
is deep inside the brain.
To recap the steps of seeing: Beams
of light enter the eye and pass through the cornea, the pupil and lens.
The cornea's convex structure and the lens break up the light beams and,
after turning the picture or image of the scene upside down, direct it
to the retina. Light-sensitive receptor cells-the cones and rods-then
convert the light into electrical signals, to be sent to the brain. The
image that comes from the retina is an upside-down picture of the world.
But the brain reverses this accordingly, letting these electrical impulses
provide it with information about the object-its type, size, color, and
distance. This entire process takes place in less than a tenth of a second.14
During the assembly of a visual image, a staggering number of processes
take place in less than a second. No computer in the world has yet been
able to match this speed. But equally as staggering is the fact that the
brain's optic nerves invariably restore reversed images from the retina
back to their original state.15
The Role of the Brain in Seeing
After the retina converts beams of light into electrical
signals, they are sent to the brain via the optic nerves in a thousandth
of a second. Signals received from each eye contain all the visual information
about the object one perceives. The brain combines the two images received
from each eye to create the single three-dimensional image you see. It
also chooses out the shapes and colors that are of interest in that image
and determines the distance involved. In other words, it is the brain-not
the eye-that sees.16
Electrical signals from the eyes first reach the primary visual cortex
at the back of the brain. This area, a few centimeters wide and only 2.5
millimeters thick, is made up of six layers containing a total of hundred
million neurons (nerve cells). The visual impulse reaches the fourth layer
first, where it is momentarily analyzed before being distributed to other
layers. Each neuron in these layers receives signals from-and sends new
signals out to-over a thousand other neurons. This exchange of information
between neurons with the connections and the ability necessary to process
the information is definitely something that couldn't have come about
through a series of coincidences. These neurons were created with the
ability to exchange information.
||(Figure 2.1). Vision takes place not in the eye,
but in the brain. The eye is merely an instrument by which electrical
signals are sent, similar to how a camera transmits images to a television
screen. But these images are meaningful only if someone is there to
watch them. If there is no viewer to watch, there is little point
in compiling any images on the television screen. The important question
here is not the sending of electrical signals or the assembling of
images in the brain; but of who or what perceives the final image.
It cannot be the eye, being merely an instrument. Neither can it be
the brain, which is merely a collection of tissue made up of fats
and proteins, and acts like a screen where the electrical impulses
are decoded. Both eye and brain are made of cells, which are themselves
made of unconscious molecules. This begs the question: Who "looks"
and "sees" the image in the brain?
The brain, working like an advanced computer, is actually a collection
of millions of living cells. In one square millimeter on the surface of
human brain, there are over 100,000 nerve cells-adding up to a total of
10 billion (10,000,000,000) cells in the entire brain. A mere fraction
of these cells work together to analyze signals from the eye.
In the following pages, we'll examine in greater detail the technicalities
of the eye-such as how different cells distribute incoming signals to
different locations, and how many cells there are in the visual center-that
outline the basic functioning of the brain.
The process of receiving and converting beams of light into electrical
signals, their journey to a specific part of the brain for processing,
and the fact that both eyes work together in synchronization comprise
just the physical and technical aspect of seeing. None of these specifics
really tells us how the end result comes to be; that is how the abstract
term we call "vision" is perceived, and by "whom" this vision is interpreted
to become meaningful. Only a conscious, unbiased individual truly realizes
that technicalities aside, the process of seeing reaches beyond the boundaries
of physical laws and enters a metaphysical dimension.
|(Figure 2.2). In order for you to see a bird in flight, first the
lens has to focus its image. That image falls, inverted upon the retina
at the back of the eye. Here, millions of photoreceptors split the
image, and analyze the bird's color, shape and movement as photons,
which are rapidly transformed into tiny electrical signals. This total
encoding is far faster than a computer's processing speed. These signals
are then transmitted to the brain, where they are decoded and the
picture interpreted. Scientists continue to be fascinated by this
amazing system and have not yet fully figured out the true nature
THE EYE - CAMERA
Light waves reflecting off the bird pass through the cornea and
the pupil, which the iris muscles have already adjusted in accord
with the surrounding brightness. The beams then pass through the
lens, whose shape is changed by relevant muscles to focus the image
clearly on the retina.
Next the photons activate the retina's photoreceptors-the cone and
rod cells. Cones determine the image's color; the rods let us see
in the dark. Great ganglion cells then process the information about
the bird's movement and outer shape, while the smaller ganglions
encode information about the bird's smaller details and colors.
The signals emerging from these cells are sent to the optic nerves.
In the brain's temporal cortex, images are recognized,
compared and understood. People with damage to this portion of their
brain lose their ability to recognize faces, even including their
The lower geniculate cells take the nerve signals
and transmit them on. The upper four rows of cells transmit information
about color and fine detail. Different inputs from the same image
are transferred separately in parallel.
An image's color, motion, depth and form are all
established in different parts of the brain. The final image is
assembled when these and other mysterious parts of the brain work
together. But scientists have yet to understand how an image's four
aspects (color, motion, depth and form) can be perceived as one.
We'll soon look into this topic in greater detail, but for now let us
continue with the miracles of creation and the eye's many functions. While
considering technical details, we must not forget that we expended no
effort to attain this miraculous pair of organs. This flawless system
came to be thanks to the splitting of one single cell in the mother's
womb, and that the process of vision continues even as you read these
very words. Immediately after analyzing the details, every human realizes
how impossible it is for such a system to have evolved coincidentally,
without a superior mind and power. Those who remain in utter denial, despite
the clear evidence before them, are described in a verse as follows:
When Our Signs came to them in all their clarity, they said, "This is
downright magic," and they repudiated them wrongly and haughtily, in spite
of their own certainty about them. See the final fate of the corrupters.
(Qur'an, 27: 13-14)
Missing Signals and Cells with Responsibility
Electrical signals converted by the retina are transmitted by a bundle
of about one million nerve cells from the retina to the visual cortex,
which contains over 100 million nerve cells. All of the nerves in this
group originate in the retina, but do not connect directly with the light-sensitive
area. Some other cells record the visual information, then transmit it
to the optic nerve.
At any one time, over ten million electrical signals are being sent down
one million nerves from the eye to the brain. Owing to this magnitude
of information, from time to time the links are known to snap, sending
any signals they were carrying to a wrong location in the brain. The eye's
flawless design is equipped for such an eventuality, however, so that
our vision is never disrupted.
Even more amazing is that a vast network of cells allows the signal to
be carried down another path, from the wrong part of the brain to the
visual center. Considering this, is it possible to call such parts of
the brain "wrong"?
In reality, the answer is no. An apparent mistake in fact reveals a miraculous
phenomenon. While one would expect misled visual signals to simply be
lost and unrecoverable, the brain cells rescue and restore them to their
original destination. When such a signal reaches them, the cells act as
if they knew it was a signal coming from the eye that needs to go to the
visual center. They have no obligation to do so, but allow the signal
to go to the brain's visual center by building the requisite connections
and organization. In this way, there are no defects in an image which
otherwise, would be interrupted and fragmentary.
Who gave the brain cells this unique ability? Is it truly possible that
billions of tiny cells, each with the same instructions, could have evolved
into their current state? Moreover, besides knowing their own function,
these cells, must be aware of other actions occurring throughout the body
and have to be able to come into play in case of any failure, even though
it is not their responsibility. Could this really have come to pass through
a series of coincidences?
These details up until now constitute the first phase of the seeing process;
one which still contains many unknowns. When we consider the later phases
of seeing, it becomes apparent how much of a mystery the entire process
For over twenty years, David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel have been
researching the eye. At the end of his book Eye, Brain and Vision,
the Harvard neuroscientist Hubel stated:
This surprising tendency for attributes such as form,
color, and movement to be handled by separate structures in the brain
immediately raises the question of how all the information is finally
assembled, say for perceiving a bouncing red ball. It obviously must be
assembled somewhere, if only at the motor nerves that subserve the action
of catching. Where it's assembled, and how, we have no idea.17
Put another way, mankind has been exploring the brain for centuries.
Yet what we know still continues to be limited.
Man's present knowledge and technology has not allowed us to fully understand
the structure of the brain. So how did such a complicated organ ever develop?
Can billions of cells and trillions of proteins have come together over
time to develop trillions of connections, each of which have particular
significance, to eventually create the brain we know today?
The dilemma that evolution is still unable to escape is that not even
one of the billions of cells making up the brain or even one of the billions
of proteins making up the cells can possibly have formed by chance.
A Life in a Few Cubic Centimeters
From birth, everything a human sees is assembled in the dark, damp atmosphere
of the brain known as the visual center, a few cubic centimeters in size.
To put this in perspective, everything we own, our childhood, the schools
we went to, our home, work, family, neighborhood, country, the world,
the universe, every single detail we have ever seen-briefly our entire
life-all came to be in a small piece of flesh.
If it did not exist, we wouldn't be able to see anything. None of the
eye's other miraculous features would be enough to allow us to see and
retain memories. The eye would be nothing more than a useless round mass
filled with fluid. Clearly, the eye alone could not function without the
brain and the visual center, both of which play an indispensable role
The Role of the Brain in Seeing
By looking at the brain's visual functions, we can understand how closely
it works in synchronization with the eye. For instance, the brain
the images received from the retinas of both eyes,
the two images to calculate depth,
lines and boundaries,
color at the visual center,
the pupil's diameter ;
eye movements with the muscles,
the pieces of the broken-down image sent by the retina and completes them
with visual memory,
the upside-down image and
in whatever small portion of the picture that falls on the retina's blind
spot (a small round area of the retina, that has no light-sensitive cells)
so we do not perceive a blank spot in our visual field.
A Map of the Brain
By closely analyzing cells, Korbinian Brodmann, a German neurologist,
has created a map of the human cerebral cortex-which proves once again
that evolution is a false claim. His map has revealed that the mechanism
of vision is far too complicated to have been created via a series of
Brodmann's map forms the basis of later studies on brain functions. For
example, the brain's first visual area is Brodmann's area 17. This part
of the cerebral cortex receives the most recent visual information through
the optic nerve. Brodmann's areas 18 and 19, which lie just in front of
area 17, store the previous visual knowledge. Information received by
the first visual area is then transferred to areas 18 and 19 for further
processing. Visual information from the upper right region of the visual
field is processed in the brain's left hemisphere. Similarly, information
from the left is processed in the right hemisphere. Because the signals
are inverted in this way, each side of the cerebral cortex processes data
from the opposite visual field.
|(Figure 2.3). An image of the links between certain parts of the
brain's visual center.
Despite solid evidence of the brain's miraculous nature, evolutionists
remain stubbornly loyal to their claims. For example, evolutionists coldly
interpret each discovery of such evident miracles of creation as yet another
success story in science's ongoing quest to unlock how the brain developed
into such a structure. The Qur'an describes such backward-mindedness of
They have sworn by God with their most earnest oaths that if a Sign comes
to them they will believe in it. Say: "The Signs are in God's control
alone." What will make you realize that even if a Sign did come, they
would still not believe?
We will overturn their hearts and sight, just as when they did not believe
in it at first, and We will abandon them to wander blindly in their excessive
insolence. (Qur'an, 6: 109-110)
Those who reject the apparent truth, telling lies, are treated in other
verses as well:
Shall I tell you upon whom the Satans descend? They descend on every
evil liar. They give them a hearing and most of them are liars. (Qur'an,
The system existing within the brain has been explored and illustrated
in detail by leading scientists. Every step of this discovery process
offered proof of the brain's magnificent, miraculous nature. It cannot
possibly have evolved on its own, by means of a series of coincidences-which
is also evidence that God has no partner or counterpart in creation.
||(Figure 2.4). A detailed information of the brain's
structure indicates what a miracle of creation it is. However, classifying
different regions of the brain and calling them by sophisticated Latin
names cannot solve the secret of the brain's existence. Evidently,
it can't possibly have been created through a series of coincidences-though
ironically, in making their claims, evolutionists use the brain given
to them by God. They made no effort to achieve their brains-they were
there since before their birth.
The Blind Spot and the Brain's Supplemental Function
You look at the words on this page and assume you see them completely.
But this is certainly not the case-there is one small spot on this page
which you cannot perceive. In a sense, you are blind to it. This is a
scientifically proven fact, and does not just apply to this page. In every
image you have looked throughout your life, there is always one little
spot you have not seen in the representations of the external world.
You cannot see this spot because where the optic nerve enters the eyeball,
there exists a small round area of the retina that has no cone or rod
cells. This optic disk, which is not sensitive to light, forms the blind
spot of the eye.
With such a blind spot, how can we still see seamlessly?
This is thanks to the brain's supplementary ability. The missing part
of your vision caused by the blind spot is "painted" with whatever color
most closely matches the background, and thus camouflaged.18
This is why you are unaware that you have a blind spot in the first place!
In order to understand the concept better, refer to
the test in Figure 2.5, then follow these steps: Shut your right eye and
hold this book 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) away from your nose. Now,
focusing only upon the red cross with your left eye, slowly draw the book
toward your nose. As the book comes closer, you will see the red circle
disappear, to be replaced by the background pattern of diagonal lines.
At this moment, you are blind to that spot. But you perceive no gap in
your vision, because your brain assumes that the spot would contain the
linear background. How the brain forms this assumption is a mystery that
neither psychologists nor neurologists have been able to solve. Some have
put forward a theory that each eye compensates for the blind spot of the
other eye, since with respect to the optic axis, the blind patch on one
eye lies at a different location than the other's. This is only part of
the theory, however. Defenders of this theory are far from an adequate
explanation as to how we still manage to see a continuous picture with
only one eye.19
We do know that the brain's "cover-up" for the blind spot is an illusion
we are made to believe and accept. This means that any vision that you
think is real may not be wholly accurate. It's a little like a dream:
While it takes place, you believe you are actively taking part in the
events, while they are nothing but an illusion created in your mind.
Now try another experiment. Look at the left-hand cross (in Figure 2.6)
with both eyes, for a full minute. Now, move your eyes to the right-hand
cross. In a few moments, color will appear around it, even if it isn't
really there. Your brain is fooling you-you are under the impression that
something is there, when it's actually not.
An Image Breaking Down
Every detail of an image falling on the retina travels around the skull
as electrical signals. Their destination, where they will be interpreted,
is the visual cortex in the occipital lobe, located at the back of the
Information from the retina reaches the visual center as jumbled signals,
which nerve cells decode and convert into the three-dimensional images
we see. In a sense, the brain works like a very advanced computer, solving
billions of electrical signals instantly.
The brain is an organ of two hemispheres. As already mentioned, the occipital
lobe in each hemisphere takes signals only from the opposite eye. In other
words, information about the right side of the visual field is sent to
the left occipital lobe, and vice versa.
In his research papers, neuroscientist
Colin Blakemore poses a question we have yet to answer effectively. What,
he asks, does the brain do after collecting and dispersing visual information?
He goes on to ask why the dispersing occurs in the first place, if the
brain then reassembles everything to form the picture.20
The phenomenally complicated process works, thanks to the combined effort
of eye components, eye-to-brain nerve cells and electrical signals. But
despite this, the process is regulated and seemingly immune to confusion
and chaos.21 This is because the body's perfect
design allows every task, from the basic to the complicated, to be carried
out flawlessly. Thanks to God's infinite power, we are able to live our
lives-except in times of illness-with no physical difficulties.
Knowing What You See
The human mind stores some of the images it sees. These stores are regularly
reopened, to be used again. When a child sees a pencil for the first time,
for example, a file opens in his memory for that pencil. Later, when he
comes across another pencil, the file opens again and the image within
is compared with the image of the present pencil. In this way, the child
determines a pencil is what he's looking at.
This pattern is by no means unique to infants and children. All human
minds-yours included-follow it automatically, all the time. When you come
across an image, it's immediately compared with any similar images from
your archives, and thus the image is recognized or not. This process may
sound needlessly simple, but if it didn't take place, you couldn't recognize
your own child.
Associative memory also enables movement recognition. If you happen to
be looking at an object in motion, your memory compares its movement with
any action that may follow. As on a roll of film, the motions are recorded,
one after the other, in a sequence of images; and the present location
of the object is compared with its previous location. All of these factors
contribute to how we perceive movement.
To recap the main details covered up until now, the mind records certain
images and stores them for regular re-use. But where and how are these
images recorded? Why and by whom are they recovered?
A computer records all data on a hard or floppy disk, but the amount
of data it can store is limited to those disks' capacity. A brain contains
no such disk, yet this piece of flesh can easily store millions of images.
Every computer disk on the market today has been designed and manufactured
by humans, and in great numbers. But if anyone came forward to claim that
years ago, certain amounts of iron, plastic and silicon coincidentally
came together to form the first computer chip, the ancestor of today's
computers, no one would take him seriously. Yet despite this, it appears
to be legitimate for people to claim that the brain and the eye, both
far superior to the computer or the camera, did indeed evolve through
a series of coincidences. The story of evolution is presented as scientific
fact when in reality it is a deceptive forgery.
There is only one reason for this. It's perfectly acceptable to believe
that the computer was designed by the human mind. But when it comes to
the superior mind behind the brain and the eye, things change completely.
If the concept of creation is accepted, then the Creator, and His laws
must be accepted also. In other words, religion must be accepted unconditionally.
This is why those who seek to maintain their non-religious establishments
have always supported the theory of evolution. Influenced by their propaganda,
those who know little about the subject believe that evolution is already
an accepted fact. In reality, it's been scientifically proven to be merely
an ideological myth. Scientific evidence proves that evolution is both
incoherent and invalid.
The Visual Memory
The process of recognizing objects
doesn't occur thanks to the eye and the visual center only, because the
memory plays an important role in this process as well.22
In order for the brain to achieve recognition, all the "visual association
areas" must work together, letting us to interpret perceptions at an advanced
level, with the help of memory.
Despite the field of neurophysiology's many significant advances over
the past half-century, we've yet to explain how memory works. What we
do know is overshadowed by far by what we have yet to learn. But we have
learned what symptoms arise when the visual association area of the brain
is damaged. A damage or a tumor in this area does not lead to blindness.
This area is activated by the impulses of the primary visual cortex, but
the sufferer becomes significantly less able (even totally unable) to
recognize familiar objects on sight-a condition termed visual agnosia.23
click on the photo for enlarge view
(Figure 2.7). The image that every eye perceives
is split down the middle (indicated above in black and green on
the retina). Signals from the eyes come down different paths, but
meet and merge at the visual center.
As seen in the diagram above, the process of decoding and reassembling
these images requires geometric precision and countless calculations.
Even more amazingly, the brain accurately compiles the broken-down
picture with no discontinuity or slip, just like the original. It
is not possible for such a flawless structure, of whose workings
we're completely unaware, to have developed on its own, coincidentally.
The entire system has to be present as a whole; it cannot develop
bit by bit. It came to be from nothing, in the mother's womb. Put
another way, the principle of gradual development one which forms
the basis of the evolution theory, is again rendered erroneous.
For a healthy individual, it's hard to imagine what such a condition
is like. The inability to recognize "familiar" objects puts sufferers
in a helpless position. When you consider that these symptoms can arise
after even the smallest impact to the brain, it is clearer that the organ
we carry in our heads is extremely sensitive.
Two Eyes, One Sight-Binocular Vision
We humans find ourselves born with two eyes, but never question why this
is so. Is it a coincidence that we have two, or is there a special reason
Each of the two eyes has a different perspective to the outside world,
as they are spaced apart from the other (Figure 2.7). The two images seen
by the eyes are subtly different, but complement each other. By picking
out the differences between them, the brain is able to determine depth
and distance. Even though a single eye can see only two-dimensionally,
the brain creates the "final" three-dimensional image.
Our interpretation of the minute differences between those two images
enable the image to be perceived as three-dimensional. If the two images
formed separately in the eyes were combined not fully in the brain, then
we would see double-and in two dimensions only.
By means of a simple experiment, you can see the difference between the
two images. Look at the branches of a tree, first with both your eyes
open. After a few moments, shut one eye and keep staring at the branches.
A minute later, uncover your eye, and you'll notice that the branches
appear "deeper" than before.
Another experiment is trying to thread a needle with one eye closed.
You will find this impossible, because with monocular vision, you have
no sense of depth.
Sometimes, certain objects appear "doubled" to our vision. This happens
when we focus in on one specific point-near or far-and consequently pay
less attention to its surroundings. Hold a pencil in the air close to
your face. Then with your other hand, take another pencil and hold it
behind the first, at arm's length. When you focus on the more distant
pencil, the closer one will appear doubled. If you focus on the closer
one, the distant pencil will similarly appear doubled. Without this ability
to focus, you would always be seeing double, no matter what you focused
Merging two separate images and creating a three-dimensional result is
a process that requires perfect calculations. If the eyes had developed
coincidentally, what are the odds that such fine synchronization could
be achieved? What coincidences would achieve a system that can analyze
and combine millions of bits of information every second? If the eyes
did not work in harmony, the brain would receive confused signals and
create a jumbled image for us to perceive. But since this is not the case,
it's not possible to reason this system was developed through a series
of coincidences. The flawlessness of God's creations is described in a
verse as follows:
He Who created the seven heavens in layers. You will
not find any flaw in the creation of the All-Merciful. Look again-do you
see any gaps? (Qur'an, 67:3)
(Figure 2.8). In the diagrams at left,
a) When the eyes focus in on point P, it becomes
a single image. As a result, point Po is outside the focus and becomes
b) When we focus on point F, we experience double vision at point
P, which is between our eyes and the object we look at.
c) When we focus on point F, we experience double vision at the
more distant point P.
As you can see, there is flawless geometrical harmony between the
two eyes. Evolution cannot claim to be behind either the eyes' structure
or the mathematical communication between the two.
How Distance is Determined
In order to determine how far away something is, the brain considers
how large it appears in the image on the retina. As long as that object's
actual size is known, the brain makes a rough calculation-based on the
perceived size of the image-of how far away that object really is.
One extraordinary aspect of this process is that it takes place completely
below the conscious level. You don't notice it, but you are actively determining
whether every object in view is nearby or far away. If this process never
took place, you would be unable to drive or even walk. Without perspective,
the outside world would become a jumble of shapes and colors.
God has given mankind countless blessings. Some we are aware of, but
remain unaware of so many others. God treats His followers with mercy
Do you not see that God has made everything on the Earth
subservient to you and the ships running upon the sea by Hiscommand? He
holds back the heaven, preventing it from falling to the Earth-except
by His permission. God is All-Compassionate to mankind, Most Merciful.
(Qur'an, 22: 65)
It is He (God) Who has created hearing, sight and hearts for you. What
little thanks you show! (Qur'an, 23/78)