But they have adopted gods apart from
Him which do not create anything but are themselves created. They
have no power to harm or help themselves. They have no power over
death or life or resurrection.
(Surat al-Furqan: 3)
There are hundreds of species of spiders in the world. These small animals
can appear to us sometimes as a construction engineer capable of performing
calculations for building its nest, sometimes as an interior designer
making complicated plans, sometimes a chemist making incredibly strong
and flexible threads, deadly venoms, and dissolving acids, and sometimes
as a hunter using the most cunning tactics.
Despite their numerous superior characteristics, nobody
in his daily life even bothers to think what special creations spiders
are. According to this underestimation there is nothing surprising in
the existence of spiders, nor in that of anything else. But this is a
completely mistaken way of thinking. Because, as we begin to learn more
about spiders, as about the behaviour of all creatures, examining for
example their methods of hunting, reproducing, and defending themselves,
we find ourselves face-to-face with characteristics that fill us with
In nature all living things adopt behaviour patterns
that require intelligence in order to live their lives. These behaviour
patterns, that underlie skills, proficiencies and superior planning capabilities,
have one thing in common. Each and every one necessarily requires ability.
Skills that a human being can master only by learning, and gaining proficiency
and experience, already exist in these living creatures from the moment
they are born. The later parts of this book consist of questions which
need to be answered: how these abilities, which will be described in some
detail, came about, and how living creatures learned them. These living
things, acting in accordance with such highly intelligent blueprints,
hunting with such calculation, and when necessary, behaving like chemical
engineers, knowing what material to produce in a particular situation,
really baffle scientists who study them. So much so that even evolutionist
scientists admit that the cleverest living creatures have characteristics
necessitating intelligence. Scientist Richard Dawkins, despite the fact
that he is an evolutionist, describes spiders' behaviour in this way in
his book, Climbing Mount Improbable:
On our route we shall have occasion to look at spider
webs - at the bewildering, though unconscious, ingenuity with which
they are made and how they work.1
Actually, saying these, Dawkins comes up against such
questions as "how the animals' conscious and intelligent behaviour
emerged, and what its source was," which cannot be explained in any
way by the theory of evolution. Really, questions such as "How do
living creatures come to possess this intelligence, and how do they learn
where to apply it?" are ones to which the defenders of the theory
of evolution are unable to supply open and definitive answers.
At this point an examination of the arguments the evolutionists
use to try to answer the question of conscious and intelligent behaviour
in animals will be appropriate. Let us do this by explaining the real
meaning of a term which evolutionists use in their claims.
Evolutionists searching for an answer to the question
of "how living creatures came to have purposeful behaviour"
use "instinct" to try to shed light on the matter. But they
are in no way successful. This can be clearly seen by a more thorough
appreciation of the concept of "instinct." Evolutionists say
that animals engage in such things as devotion, planning, tactics or behaviour
requiring special abilities, which require consciousness and intelligence,
thanks to "instinct." But, of course, evolutionists' just saying
this is not sufficient. In addition to making this claim, they also have
to provide answers to such questions as how this behaviour first came
about, how it was passed down the generations, and how the concept of
"instinct" managed to give living creatures consciousness and
intelligence. However, evolutionists have absolutely no answers to these
questions. Gordon Rattray Taylor is an evolutionist expert in genetics.
He has this to say about instincts:
When we ask ourselves how an instinctive pattern of
behaviour arose in the first place and became hereditarily fixed we
are given no answer. 2
Other evolutionists say that all living creatures'
behaviour is founded not on instinct but on their genetic programming.
But in that case they have to explain who wrote the programme and installed
it in living creatures. But evolutionists are unable to do this. Despite
being the originator of the theory, Charles Darwin admits their dilemma
in the following words:
So wonderful an instinct as that of the hive-bee making
its cells will probably have occurred to many readers, as a difficulty
sufficient to overthrow my whole theory.3
As the above makes quite clear, a concept such as "instinct"
is absolutely insufficient to shed light on living creatures' conscious
behaviour. Of course there is a power that programmes living creatures
and teaches them what to do. But this is not a result of "Mother
Nature" as it is called, nor of the living creature itself, which
will defend its young at the cost of its own life, or which will go back
to deceive the enemy with various tactics in order to save the life of
another member of its own group.
The power which gives them all these characteristics,
which creates their intelligent behaviour and purposeful movements, belongs
to God. God is the only lord of that intelligence which we witness in
living creatures in countless examples in nature. It is God Who inspires
living creatures to do what they do.
It is impossible to explain the behaviour of any living
creature by coincidence, or by any other mechanism or interesting concept.
No such claim can be any more than a deception. All this is revealed in
one of His verses:
Say: 'Have you ever seen your associates whom
you appeal to instead of to God? Show me what they have created of the
earth; or do they have a partnership in the heavens?' Have We given them
a Book whose Clear Signs they follow? No indeed! The wrongdoers promise
each other nothing but delusion. (Surah Fatir: 40)
The living creature which is the subject of this book, the spider, its
behaviour patterns and the flawless mechanisms it possesses, is one of
those that give the lie to the theory of evolution, or, to put it more
robustly, "destroy the theory of evolution." The pages that
follow will demonstrate one of the countless miracles of God's creation,
the spider. At the same time they will once again set forth how the theory
of evolution, which relies totally on coincidences, has fallen into impotence