SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR'AN
THE MOON'S ORBIT
CALCULATING THE LUNAR YEAR
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY AND
THE ROUNDNESS OF THE EARTH
THE EARTH'S DIRECTION OF
THE EARTH'S GEOID SHAPE
THE DIAMETERS OF THE EARTH
THE LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE
THE PROTECTED ROOF
THE SUN'S TRAJECTORY
stressed in the Qur'an that the Sun and Moon follow specific trajectories:
It is He Who created night and day and the sun and
moon, each one swimming in a sphere. (Qur'an, 21:33)
The word "swim" in the above verse is expressed in Arabic by the word
"sabaha" and is used to describe the movement of the Sun in space.
The word means that the Sun does not move randomly through space but that
it rotates around its axis and follows a course as it does so. The fact
that the Sun is not fixed in position but rather follows a specific trajectory
is also stated in another verse:
And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the
decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (Qur'an, 36:38)
These facts set out in the Qur'an were only discovered by means of astronomical
advances in our own time. According to astronomers' calculations, the
Sun moves along a path known as the Solar Apex in the path of the star
Vega at an incredible speed of 720,000 kmph. In rough terms, this shows
that the Sun traverses some 17.28 million km a day. As well as the Sun
itself, all the planets and satellites within its gravitational field
also travel the same distance.
THE MOON'S ORBIT
And We have decreed set phases for the moon, until
it ends up looking like an old date branch. It is not for the sun to
overtake the moon nor for the night to outstrip the day; each one is
swimming in a sphere. (Qur'an, 36:39-40)
The Moon does not follow a regular orbit like the satellites of other
planets. As it orbits the Earth, it sometimes moves behind it and sometimes
in front. As it also moves with the Earth around the Sun, it actually
follows a constant pattern resembling the letter "S" in space. This route,
traced by the Moon in space, is described in the Qur'an as resembling
an old date branch and does indeed resemble the twisted form of the date
tree branch. Indeed, the word "urjoon" employed in the Qur'an refers to
a thin and twisted date branch and is used to describe that part left
after the fruit has been picked. The way that this branch is described
as "old" is also most appropriate since old date branches are thinner
and more twisted.
Since the Moon revolves
around the Sun together with the Earth, it follows a path through
space which resembles the letter “S.” The appearance
of this orbit resembles the twisted shape of a dry date branch,
as is revealed in the Qurâ€™an.
There is no doubt that it was impossible for anyone to have any knowledge
about the orbit of the Moon 1,400 years ago. The way that this pattern,
identified by modern technology and accumulated knowledge, was revealed
in the Holy Book is yet another scientific miracle of the Qur'an.
CALCULATING THE LUNAR YEAR
It is He Who appointed the sun to give radiance, and
the moon to give light, assigning it phases so you would know the number
of years and the reckoning of time. Allah did not create these things
except with truth. We make the Signs clear for people who know. (Qur'an,
And We have decreed set phases for the moon, until
it ends up looking like an old date branch. (Qur'an, 36:39)
In the first of the above verses, Allah has clearly revealed that the
Moon will be a means of measurement for people to calculate the year.
Furthermore, our attention is also drawn to the fact that these calculations
will be performed according to the positions of the Moon as it revolves
in its orbit. Since the angles between the Earth and Moon and the Moon
and Sun constantly change, we see the Moon in different forms at different
times. Furthermore, our ability to see the Moon is made possible by the
fact that it is illuminated by the Sun. The amount of the lighted half
of the Moon we see from Earth changes. Bearing in mind these changes,
a number of calculations can be made, making it possible for human beings
to measure the year.
In former times a month was calculated as the time between two full moons,
or the time it took the Moon to travel around the Earth. According to
this, one month was equal to 29 days, 12 hours and 44 minutes. This is
known as the "lunar month." Twelve lunar months represent one year, according
to the Hijri calendar. However, there is a difference of eleven days between
the Hijri calendar and the Gregorian calendar, in which a year is the
time it takes the Earth to orbit the Sun. Indeed, attention is drawn to
this difference in another verse:
They stayed in their Cave for three hundred years and
added nine. (Qur'an, 18:25)
We can clarify the time referred to in the verse thus: 300 years x 11
days (the difference which forms every year) = 3,300 days. Bearing in
mind that one solar year lasts 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.5
seconds, 3,300 days/365.24 days = 9 years. To put it another way, 300
years according to the Gregorian calendar is equal to 300+9 years according
to the Hijri calendar. As we can see, the verse refers to this finely
calculated difference of 9 years. (Allah knows best.) There is no doubt
that the Qur'an, which contains such pieces of information, which transcended
the everyday knowledge of the time, is a miraculous revelation.
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY AND ORBITAL MOVEMENTS
No! I swear by the planets-that recede, that ride their
course [and] hide themselves. (Qur'an, 81: 15-16)
The word "khunnas"
in Surat at-Takwir 15 bears such meanings as shrinking and cowering, retracting
and turning back. The Arabic expression translated as "hide themselves"
in the 16th verse is "kunnas." The word "kunnas" is
the plural form of "kanis" and refers to a specific path: entering
a nest, the home of a body in motion or things entering their homes and
hiding there. Again in verse 16, the word "aljawari," the plural form
of the word "jariya" which means one that moves and flows, is
translated as "that ride their course." Bearing in mind the meaning of
these words, it is very possible that these verses refer to the gravitational
forces of the planets and their movements around their orbits.
These words in the above verses fully describe orbital movements stemming
from the force of gravity. Of these, the word "khunnas" refers
to the planets' attraction towards their own centres and also their attraction
towards the Sun, which is the centre of our Solar System. (Allah knows
best.) The force of gravity already existed in the universe-although it
was only possible to reveal this attractive force with mathematical formulae
with Sir Isaac Newton, who lived in the 17th and 18th
centuries. The word "aljawari" in the following verse emphasises
the orbital movements that arise as a result of the centrifugal force
that opposes this attractive one. There is no doubt that the use of the
word "aljawari" together with "khunnas" (attraction
towards the centre, shrinkage) and "kunnas" (path, entering the
nest, the home of a body in motion) indicates an important scientific
truth that nobody could have known about 1,400 years ago. (Allah knows
best.) Moreover, these verses, one of the subjects sworn on in the Qur'an,
are another indication of the importance of the subject.
THE ROUNDNESS OF THE EARTH
He has created the Heavens and the Earth for Truth.
He wraps the night up in the day, and wraps the day up in the night.
the Qur'an, the words used for describing the universe are quite remarkable.
The Arabic word which is translated as "to wrap" in the above verse is
"takwir." In English, it means "to make one thing lap over another,
folded up as a garment that is laid away." For instance, in Arabic dictionaries
this word is used for the action of wrapping one thing around another,
in the way that a turban is put on. The information given in the verse
about the day and the night wrapping each other up includes accurate information
about the shape of the world. This can be true only if the Earth is round.
This means that in the Qur'an, which was revealed in the 7th century,
the roundness of the world was hinted at.
However, it should be remembered that the understanding of astronomy
of the time perceived the world differently. It was then thought that
the world was a flat plane and all scientific calculations and explanations
were based on this belief. However, the Glorious Qur'an has employed the
most definitive words when it came to describing the universe. These facts,
which we could only correctly fathom in our century, have been in the
Qur'an for a vast length of time.
THE EARTH'S DIRECTION OF ROTATION
You will see the mountains and reckon them to be solid;
but they go past like clouds-the handiwork of Allah Who gives to everything
its solidity. He is aware of what you do. (Qur'an, 27:88)
The above verse emphasises that the Earth not only rotates
but that it also has a direction of rotation. The direction of movement
of the main cloud masses at 3,500-4,000 metres high is always from West
to East. That is why it is generally the state of the weather in the West
which is looked at in meteorological forecasts.18
If only they had believed and had fear [and awareness of Allah]!
A reward from Allah is better, if they only knew.
Do you not know that Allah is He to Whom the kingdom of the heavens
and the earth belongs and that, besides Allah,
you have no protector and no helper?
The main reason why cloud masses are pulled from West to East is the
direction in which the Earth rotates. As we now know, our Earth spins
from West to East. This fact, only recently established by science, was
revealed in the Qur'an hundreds of years ago.
THE EARTH'S GEOID SHAPE
After that He smoothed out the earth. (Qur'an, 79:30)
the above verse, the word "daha" is used in the original Arabic.
It, translated as "smoothed out," comes from the word "dahv,"
meaning "to spread." Although the word "dahv" also means to cover
or to set out, the meaning of the verb is more than just a prosaic setting
out, since it describes setting out in a circle.
The concept of roundness is also present in other words derived from
"dahv." For example, the word "dahv" also refers to
children dropping a ball into a hole in the ground, games involving throwing
stones into holes and games played with walnuts. Words derived from that
root are also used for an ostrich making a nest, cleaning stones from
where it is about to lie down, the place where it lays its eggs and the
Indeed, the Earth is round, in a manner reminiscent of an egg. The slightly
flattened spherical shape of the Earth is known as geoid. From that point
of view, the use of the word "daha" contains important information
about the shape that Allah has given to the Earth. For hundreds of years,
people imagined the Earth to be completely flat and only learned the truth
thanks to technology. Yet, this fact was revealed in the Qur'an fourteen
THE DIAMETERS OF THE EARTH AND SPACE
Company of jinn and men, if you are able to pierce
through the confines of the heavens and earth, pierce through them.
You will not pierce through except with a clear authority. (Qur'an,
The Arabic word translated as "confines" in the above verse is "aqtar."
This is the plural form of the word "qutr," meaning diameter
and refers to the skies and the Earth having many diameters. It is possible
in Arabic to tell from the form in which a word is used whether it is
singular, plural (more than two), or employed in a dual form. Therefore,
the form of the word used here, the plural, refers to another piece of
A three-dimensional body can only be said to have a single diameter if
it is perfectly spherical. The term "diameters" can only refer to an irregular
but basically spherical shape. This word chosen in the Qur'an-diameters-is
important from the point of view of indicating the geoid shape of the
Earth. The second noteworthy subject in the verse is that the Earth and
the heavens are mentioned separately in reference to diameters.
According to Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, the universe
is expanding. But this does not mean that the galaxies and other heavenly
bodies are being dispersed in space. This means that space is expanding
and that the distance between the galaxies is increasing.
The definition of the "confines of the heavens" in Surat
ar-Rahman 33 indicates the spherical structure of space. (Allah knows
best.) In the same way that the diameters of space will be different from
different points in space, so the diameters of a constantly expanding
space will also display differences. From that point of view the use of
the plural form of the word confine is full of wisdom, and is one of the
indications that the Qur'an is the revelation of our Omniscient Lord.
… [T]he sun and moon and stars are subservient to His command.
Both creation and command belong to Him. Blessed be Allah, the
Lord of all the worlds.
THE LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE
One fact about the universe revealed in the verses of the Qur'an is that
the sky is made up of seven layers:
It is He Who created everything on the earth for you
and then directed His attention up to heaven and arranged it into seven
regular heavens. He has knowledge of all things. (Qur'an, 2:29)
Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke. In two
days He determined them as seven heavens and revealed, in every heaven,
its own mandate. (Qur'an, 41:11-12)
The atmosphere only lets rays required for life reach the Earth.
For example, ultraviolet rays make it to the world only partially.
This is the most appropriate range to allow plants to make photosynthesis
and eventually for all living things to survive.
The word "heavens," which appears in many verses in the Qur'an, is used
to refer to the sky above the Earth, as well as the entire universe. Given
this meaning of the word, it is seen that the Earth's sky, or the atmosphere,
is made up of seven layers.
it is known that the world's atmosphere consists of different layers that
lie on top of each other.19 Based on the criteria
of chemical contents or air temperature, the definitions made have determined
the atmosphere of the earth as seven layers.20 According
to the "Limited Fine Mesh Model (LFMMII)," a model of atmosphere used
to estimate weather conditions for 48 hours, the atmosphere is also 7
layers. According to the modern geological definitions the seven layers
of atmosphere are as follows:
The Qur'an says, "[He] revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate,"
in Surah Fussilat 12. In other words, Allah is stating that He assigned
each heaven its own duty. Truly, as will be seen in following chapters,
each one of these layers has vital duties for the benefit of human kind
and all other living things on the Earth. Each layer has a particular
function, ranging from forming rain to preventing harmful rays, from reflecting
radio waves to averting the harmful effects of meteors.
The verses below inform us about the appearance of the seven layers of
Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers?
He Who created the seven heavens in layers… (Qur'an,
The Arabic word "tibaqan" in these verses, translated into English
as "layer" means "layer, the appropriate cover or covering for something,"
and thus stresses how the top layer is well suited to the lower. The word
is also used in the plural here: "layers." The sky, described in the verse
as being in layers, is without doubt the most perfect expression of the
atmosphere. It is a great miracle that these facts, which could not possibly
be discovered without the technology of the 20th century, were explicitly
stated by the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.
THE PROTECTED ROOF
In the Qur'an, Allah calls our attention to a very important attribute
of the sky:
We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet
still they turn away from Our Signs. (Qur'an, 21:32)
This attribute of the sky has been proved by scientific research carried
out in the 20th century: The atmosphere surrounding the Earth serves crucial
functions for the continuity of life. While destroying many meteors-big
and small-as they approach the Earth, it prevents them from falling to
Earth and harming living things.
In addition, the atmosphere filters the light rays coming from space
that are harmful to living things. The most striking feature of the atmosphere
is that it lets only harmless and useful rays-visible light, near ultraviolet
light and radio waves pass through. All of this radiation is vital for
life. Near ultraviolet rays, which are only partially let in by the atmosphere,
are very important for the photosynthesis of plants and for the survival
of all living beings. The majority of the intense ultraviolet rays emitted
from the Sun are filtered out by the ozone layer of the atmosphere. Only
a limited and essential part of the ultraviolet spectrum reaches the Earth.
The protective function of the atmosphere does not end here. The atmosphere
also protects the earth from the freezing cold of the space, which is
It is not only the atmosphere that protects the Earth from harmful effects.
In addition to the atmosphere, the Van Allen Belt-the layer caused by
the magnetic field of the Earth-also serves as a shield against the harmful
radiation that threatens our planet. This radiation, which is constantly
emitted by the Sun and other stars, is deadly to living things. If the
Van Allen belt did not exist, the massive outbursts of energy called solar
flares that frequently occur in the Sun would destroy all life on Earth.
layer, formed by the magnetic field of the Earth, serves as a shield
protecting the Earth from celestial bodies, harmful cosmic rays
and particles. In the above picture, this magnetosphere layer, which
is also named Van Allen Belts, is seen. These belts at thousands
of kilometres above the Earth protect the living things on the Earth
from the fatal energy that would otherwise reach it from space.
All these scientific findings prove
that the world is protected in a very particular way. The important
thing is that this protection was made known in the Qur'an in the
verse "We made the sky a preserved and protected roof"
fourteen centuries ago.
On the importance of the Van Allen Belt, Dr. Hugh Ross says:
In fact, the Earth has the highest density of any
of the planets in our Solar System. This large nickel-iron core is responsible
for our large magnetic field. This magnetic field produces the Van-Allen
radiation shield, which protects the Earth from radiation bombardment.
If this shield were not present, life would not be possible on the Earth.
The only other rocky planet to have any magnetic field is Mercury-but
its field strength is 100 times less than the Earth's. Even Venus, our
sister planet, has no magnetic field. The Van-Allen radiation shield
is a design unique to the Earth.21
The energy transmitted in just one of these bursts detected in recent
years was calculated to be equivalent to 100 billion atomic bombs, each
akin to one dropped on Hiroshima at the end of World War II. Fifty-eight
hours after the burst, it was observed that the magnetic needles of compasses
displayed unusual movement and 250 kilometres above the Earth's atmosphere,
the temperature suddenly increased to 2,500oC.
Most people looking at the sky do not think about
the protective aspect of the atmosphere. They almost never think
what kind of a place the world would be like if this structure
did not exist. The above photo belongs to a giant crater caused
by a meteor that fell in Arizona, in the USA. If the atmosphere
did not exist, millions of meteoroids would fall to the Earth
and the Earth would become an inhabitable place. Yet, the protective
aspect of the atmosphere allows living things to survive in safety.
This is certainly Allah's protection of people and a miracle proclaimed
in the Qur'an.
In short, a perfect system is at work high above the Earth. It surrounds
our world and protects it against external threats. Centuries ago, Allah
informed us in the Qur'an of the world's atmosphere functioning as a protective