Exemplary Values of Believers Reflecting Their Mercy
So far, we have explained to whom believers should show mercy and the
criteria the Qur'an lays down on this subject. We have also stressed that
believers' compassion is a natural consequence of their fear of Allah
and their elevated morality. That is also the reason why they adopt a
compassionate attitude, irrespective of the circumstances.
In this section, we shall deal with how mercy permeates believers' lives,
the elevated values arising from a correct understanding of mercy and
how believers live by this morality. No doubt the attributes that reflect
the believer's understanding of mercy are legion; yet, in this section,
we have to limit ourselves to the most significant ones.
At this juncture, there is an important point to remember: believers
display moral perfection as described in the Qur'an only because Allah
commands so and because they fear Allah. "Mercy" is, therefore, an extremely
important and fundamental value that enables them to sincerely and properly
live by Qur'anic morality and to maintain their commitment to it under
For instance, because it is a command of Allah and because a believer
has a deep fear of Allah's punishment, a believer does not even think
of cheating in measurement, weight or calculation, thereby distressing
other believers or placing them in difficulties. This aside, the feelings
of mercy he has in his heart make him grasp the divine purposes and delicacy
inherent in this command and so he takes pleasure in observing it. In
this way, he stands firm against all the provocations of evil and the
urgings of his lower self.
It is unlikely that a person with immature feelings of mercy can be just,
self-sacrificing and honest. A person devoid of compassion does not even
think that he needs Allah's mercy, since he is also unaware of his own
weaknesses. Consequently, he does not fear Allah as he should, and in
his daily living he fails to display the good values of the Qur'an.
It should be borne in mind that, all the moral values described in the
Qur'an are of a complementary nature; they perfect and support one another.
The existence of one of them is conditional upon the existence of the
Below, we will see how mercy positively influences and perfects the other
elevated moral values of believers.
To Rule with Justice
Mercy is a very important moral quality that ensures the exercise of
justice. A believer never assumes a cruel or merciless attitude towards
another, be he friend or foe. His feelings of mercy make him committed
to showing justice under all conditions.
Aware that Allah witnesses everything he does, says and even thinks,
a person of faith never perpetrates any unjust deed. The Qur'an also enjoins
believers to be just and believers know that acting against the commands
of the Qur'an will surely bring upon them the grievous penalty of hell.
Some of the commands of Allah on being just are as follows:
Allah commands you to return to their owners the things
you hold on trust and, when you judge between people, to judge with justice.
How excellent is what Allah exhorts you to do! Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
(Surat an-Nisa': 58)
We sent Our Messengers with the Clear Signs and sent
down the Book and the Balance with them so that mankind might establish
justice… (Surat al-Hadid: 25)
Ibn 'Umar reported that in one of his hadiths, the Prophet, may Allah
bless him and grant him peace, said the following concerning the just
behaviour of believers towards:
"A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim; he does him no injustice, nor does
he leave him alone (to be the victim of another's injustice); and whoever
does the needful for his brother, Allâh does the needful for him…"
Another point we need to make clear here is the superiority of the believers'
understanding of justice. In unenlightened societies, everyone entertains
different ideas about justice, which leads to justice being meted out
in a variety of ways. Indeed, everyone has his own ideas about right and
wrong and, in the light of these variable criteria, he makes judgements.
However, the situation is otherwise for believers. The basis of a believer's
understanding of justice is in the Words of Allah, that is, in the Qur'an,
which is the Just Book that provides man with the most exact knowledge
of all things. Allah is infinitely just. Thus, a believer, who complies
with His words and acquires the morality deemed to be favourable by Him,
displays the most just attitude by nature.
Not to Approve of Cruelty
Believers never remain insensitive towards acts of cruelty that they
witness, hear or learn about in some way. Their compassion, that stems
from the morality of the Qur'an, calls for standing up against all forms
of cruelty, protecting the rights of the innocent and, if necessary, struggling
on their behalf.
They never hesitate to struggle against cruelty, whether the person subjected
to it be a close friend or a stranger they have never met in all their
lives. Moreover, they consider this as a precious opportunity to earn
the approval of Allah and to display Qur'anic morality.
The members of a society not living by the values of religion, however,
think that not making such sacrifices is a sign of cleverness and they
label those who involve themselves in such efforts as "stupid". This clearly
shows their forgetfulness of the fact that, all human beings will be summoned
to account for their good and wicked deeds on the Day of Judgement. A
believer, however, who remains conscious of this fact, approaches even
a stranger with compassion and strives to improve the situation of those
who are exposed to cruelty.
Even in situations in which there is not a single soul who will support
him, a believer commits himself to removing evil. The insensitive and
unscrupulous attitude of those who do otherwise never make him falter
in his commitment, although such people may be in the majority. He always
keeps in mind that, in the hereafter, he will be questioned about every
incident he witnessed and how he sided with the good and showed determination
to remove evil. Contrary to the views of the majority, he knows that just
saying, "I have not heard, seen or witnessed anything" by no means exonerates
him. He never forgets that it will be only he who will be rewarded in
case he acts conscientiously and again, only he will be punished if he
ignores wrongdoing. This being the case, he never turns a blind eye to
In societies where the values of religion are not observed, however,
examples of moral negligence may be seen at all times. For instance, a
person who witnesses an accident may just hurry past, so as not to have
to go to any trouble or when he sees someone being unjustly treated, he
may remain silent so as not to direct the anger of the oppressor towards
However, a believer who is guided by his conscience and feelings of mercy,
never remains silent at injustice or ignores such events. After all, he
never oppresses anyone or does any injustice, and thus becomes a role
model for Quranic morality. If he sees others displaying conscienceless
attitudes, he is disturbed by pangs of conscience himself until he feels
he has striven enough to remedy the situation. That is because, true mercy
does not allow one to ignore cruelty or turn one's back to it.
To Be Forgiving of Mistakes
One of the most important signs of Islamic virtue is to be forgiving
and merciful. In the Qur'an, Allah calls His faithful servants to be "forgiving":
Practice forgiveness, command what is right, and turn
away from the ignorant. (Surat al-A'raf: 199)
This is an attitude that the lower self finds hard to assume, but which
deserves great rewards in the sight of Allah.
An individual may be unwilling to forgive a mistake or may feel angry
about it. However, Allah makes it clear that forgiveness is the better
path to take and encourages believers to practise this elevated form of
The repayment of a bad action is one equivalent to it.
But if someone pardons and puts things right, his reward is with Allah.
Certainly He does not love wrongdoers. (Surat ash-Shura: 40)
In another verse, Allah draws attention to the fact that willingness
to forgive is a praiseworthy attribute of a believer:
But if someone is steadfast and forgives, that is the
most resolute course to follow. (Surat ash-Shura: 43)
Let not those of you who possess affluence and ample
wealth ever become remiss in helping (the erring ones among) their relatives
and the very poor and those who have migrated in the way of Allah. They
should rather pardon and overlook. Would you not love Allah to forgive
you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surat an-Nur: 22)
In the above verse, Allah calls believers to reflect upon how they would
like to be treated. Indeed, every one strives for Allah's forgiveness,
mercy and grace. He wishes that other people would forgive him when he
makes a mistake. By recalling this, Allah wants people to treat others
in the way they want to be treated by them. This is no doubt a major reason
for believers to show mercy to one another.
Believers show mercy to other believers, no matter how serious their
mistakes may be, although, their forgiveness is very different from the
forgiveness of those who do not embrace Qur'anic morality.
Those who are distant from Qur'anic morality, may say that they have
forgiven someone, but the rage and hate they feel deep in their hearts
hardly lessens. Their attitude, often reproachful, gives hints of this
rage. Indeed, they give vent to the rage and hate in their hearts whenever
they have the opportunity.
Believers, on the other hand, sincerely forgive, which is conduct praised
by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the words
he said to one of his companions "You possess two qualities that Allah
loves. These are clemency and tolerance." (Muslim) Aware that man is by
nature a fallible being, they approach people with tolerance from the
very outset. The verses in the Qur'an relative to repentance remind us
that man is prone to mistakes, yet what really matters is his sincere
efforts not to repeat a mistake once he realises he has done something
wrong. One of the verses reads:
Allah only accepts the repentance of those who do evil
in ignorance and then quickly repent after doing it. Allah turns towards
such people. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (Surat an-Nisa': 17)
As long as a believer displays such an attitude, which makes his sincerity
explicit, believers treat him most compassionately and with forgiveness.
They do not inwardly hold grudges for mistakes made by someone who repents,
regrets and tries to make amends. When he is sincerely committed to never
repeating his mistake, believers know that they cannot judge him adversely
because of something he has done in the past and that the truly important
thing is the recent morality he displays.
One distinctive quality of believers' forgiveness is their showing no
hesitation to forgive, even in circumstances where they are completely
right and the wrongdoer is utterly unjust, since Allah recommends this
as a model example of morality:
Those who give in times of both ease and hardship, those
who control their rage and pardon other people-Allah loves the good-doers.
(Surah Al 'Imran: 134)
Considering this command of Allah, believers act humbly, thereby becoming
role models for others to follow.
Another important personal quality stemming from the values of Qur'an
is that, in their minds, believers do not classify mistakes as minor or
serious and hence do not develop a different understanding of forgiveness
according to the nature of each mistake. It may well be that the person
in question has caused great material loss or has done harm to one's health
by a mistake he has made. However, aware that every incident takes place
by the will of Allah and in conformance with destiny, a believer faces
up to such an incident by putting his trust in Him. Therefore, he never
harbours anger deep in his heart, nor does he allow it to be stirred up.
Again, out of ignorance, this person might have disobeyed Allah's commands
and transgressed His limits. Yet, in this situation, it is only Allah
Who can judge the individual concerned. Thus, judging a person or not
forgiving him is an attitude which a believer is not responsible for.
The rewards one receives in return for sincere repentance and regret are
at the will of Allah. Indeed, in numerous verses, Allah informs believers
that He can forgive any mistakes except for that of "ascribing partners
to Allah" (shirk). Since believers can never know whether an act is of
an idolatrous nature, they forgive by complying with Allah's commands
and if there is a particular attitude recommended in the Qur'an which
a believer must assume in the face of such a mistake, they do so.
At this point, we need to recall that for a believer, sincerity and doing
good will serve as the main criteria for forgiveness. A believer identifies
these qualities in a person by the wisdom and conscience he possesses.
He would no doubt debar one, who had made wickedness a way of life, from
taking advantage of believers' compassion and good values. In such a case,
a believer knows that true compassion entails not only forgiveness but
also exhortations to be sincere and honest and to go in fear of Allah,
all of which expresses his compassion in a more appropriate way.
Helping One Another in Goodness and Piety
Believers show their compassion by encouraging one another to engage
in such deeds as would be most likely to earn Allah's blessing. They know
that true compassion requires supporting one another in such a way as
to become people worthy of the Garden. In that respect, they do their
best to make up for each others' mistakes and shortcomings. Such cooperation
is also what Allah and Qur'anic morality enjoin. The limits of such cooperation
is specified in the Qur'an as follows:
…Help each other to goodness and heedfulness. Do not
help each other to wrongdoing and enmity. Heed Allah. Allah is severe
in retribution. (Surat al-Ma'ida: 2)
As is also expressed in the above verse, believers' not helping one another
in " wrongdoing and enmity" is another manifestation of true compassion.
When someone asks help for same wicked aim, they do not behave ignorantly
and say, "I might offend them" or "It would be improper not to help" because
they know that even if the wrongdoer is frustrated by a refusal of help
at that point, he will certainly be pleased with the outcome in the hereafter,
and that this is the best sign of one's compassion.
In the above verse, Allah informs us that the best assistance a believer
can offer is in promoting goodness and piety. Again, we learn from the
Qur'an what goodness is:
It is not righteousness to turn your faces to the East
or to the West. Rather, those with true righteousness are those who believe
in Allah and the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets, and
who, despite their love for it, give away their wealth to their relatives
and to orphans and the very poor, and to travellers and beggars and to
set slaves free, and who establish prayer and pay welfare tax; those who
honour their contracts when they make them, and are steadfast in poverty
and illness and in battle. Those are the people who are true. They are
the people who do their duty. (Surat al-Baqara: 177)
As is evident, true goodness plainly differs from the sense of goodness
prevalent in societies in which the values of religion do not prevail.
People, who are distant from Qur'anic morality, perceive goodness as a
favour done when one feels like it. This is an attitude occasionally adopted.
Often this form of goodness is limited to not side-stepping beggars and
to giving in charity, feeding stray dogs or giving one's seat to an elderly
person in a crowded bus. However, all these favours are done only when,
they do not harm one's interests.
Contrary to this picture, however, the kind of goodness described in
the Qur'an is the kind of morality and worship practised right throughout
one's life, and not only when it happens to occur to one or one feels
like it: it is not dependent on particular conditions. When necessary,
a believer can consider making any sacrifice simply for the sake of doing
a good deed or to encourage others to do good deeds.
Another subject on which Allah commands believers to help one another
is the awe or fear of Allah (taqwa) which inspires the individual to be
on his guard against wrong actions and to be eager to do things which
please Allah. The following verses describe different aspects of "taqwa":
…Whatever good you do, Allah knows it. Take provision;
but the best provision is doing your duty (taqwa). So heed Me, people
of intelligence! (Surat al-Baqara: 197)
Children of Adam! We have sent down clothing to you to
conceal your private parts, and fine apparel, but the clothing of heedfulness
(taqwa)-that is best! That is one of Allah's Signs, so that hopefully
you will pay heed. (Surat al-A'raf: 26)
Mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made
you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other.
The noblest among you in Allah's sight is the one who best performs his
duty (one with the most taqwa). Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (Surat
The Qur'an informs us that what is precious in the sight of Allah is
not the deed itself but the intention behind it and whether it has been
done purely to earn Allah's approval. The following verse explains this
Their flesh and blood does not reach Allah but your heedfulness
does reach Him… (Surat al-Hajj: 37)
Examples from our daily life are legion. For instance, one may give charity
to the poor or make many sacrifices or be very considerate towards others.
Yet, the real criterion here must be that while doing all these things,
the individual must hope only to earn Allah's approval and seek only His
rewards. If his intention is to show off, to earn the admiration or praise
of others then it may well be that his efforts will be in vain. Ultimately,
in the hereafter, everyone will be rewarded in accordance with his own
In the Qur'an, Allah commands believers not only to do good deeds but
also to be sincere about doing them. Cooperation among believers is based
upon exactly these two criteria that are deemed to be precious in the
hereafter. True compassion, indeed, entails this kind of cooperation.
Believers help others only to provide comfort and bring peace. For instance,
believers help to improve one's health, to provide better living conditions,
to give joy and happiness, to ease worries or strengthen faith. That is,
the ultimate end of such help has to improve health, peace, the environment
and people's faith.
However, those who have no Qur'anic understanding of mercy do not while
helping someone appreciate these finer points. They do not even think
of the possibility of the harm they may cause to others. For instance,
lending money for gambling, prostitution or fraud is highly damaging.
The one who borrows the money sooner or later find himself in great trouble
in this world. But the matter does not end there, for his suffering extends
to the hereafter, because of his having acted against the commands of
Allah. Furthermore, the lender ought also to accept the blame for having
helped another to commit a sin. In this sense, he may become equally responsible
for the sin. For this reason, Allah declares that such people will meet
the most grievous punishment in the hereafter and that they will no longer
be able to help one another:
"Why are you not helping one another?" No, today they
come in absolute submission. (Surat as-Saffat: 25-26)
Those who help one another out of goodness and piety will be rewarded
Those who produce a good action will receive ten like
it. But those who produce a bad action will only be repaid with its equivalent
and they will not be wronged. (Surat al-An'am: 160)
…If anyone does a good action, We will increase the good
of it for him. "Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Thankful". (Surat ash-Shura:
Being One of Those Who Enjoin the Right and Forbid the
Without a doubt, it is only believers who have any true knowledge of
goodness and evil, since the Qur'an, which is "the criterion of judgment
between right and wrong", provides them with the real meanings of these
concepts. The Qur'an offers precise illustrations of the concepts of right,
wrong, goodness and evil so that everyone may have a full grasp of them.
Moreover, because of their fear of Allah, Allah has granted believers
"discrimination between right and wrong". (Surat
al-Anfal: 29) However, keeping this discrimination only to oneself
is not in consonance with Islamic morality; a believer must also enjoin
other people, who are willing to see the right and accept admonition,
to live by the Qur'an. This being so, throughout their lives, believers
impress upon others the difference between right and wrong. Allah commands
Let there be a community among you who call to the good,
and enjoin the right, and forbid the wrong. They are the ones who have
success. (Surah Al 'Imran: 104)
Those who repent, those who worship, those who praise,
those who fast, those who bow, those who prostrate, those who command
the right, those who forbid the wrong, those who preserve the limits of
Allah: give good news to the believers. (Surat at-Tawba: 112)
Allah informs those who fulfil His decree that they are the best community
that has been raised by Him for mankind:
You are the best nation ever to be produced before mankind.
You enjoin the right, forbid the wrong and believe in Allah. If the People
of the Book were to believe, it would be better for them. Some of them
are believers but most of them are deviators. (Surah Al 'Imran: 110)
Believers take into consideration a crucial criterion when they enjoin
goodness and forbid wrongdoing; wrongful attitudes displayed by one in
the past or those ones he currently assumes, do not give rise any kind
of prejudice in believers. They never consider that anyone "will never
be a believer in the true sense" because of his past errors. Believers
do not make such distinctions between people in communicating Allah's
message. They are very well aware that this is unjust and so strictly
avoid it. They are aware that if they want other people also to display
the high morality peculiar to believers, they have primarily to be informed
about Islam and educated in the light of the Qur'an. For this very reason,
no matter how unfavourable the attitude of others may be, believers never
hesitate to enjoin goodness, forbid what is wrong and communicate the
message to them.
However, despite all this striving, if their hearers insist on being
intractable, they apply no coercion. Allah reveals this truth in the Qur'an
when He says that there is no coercion in religion:
There is no compulsion where the religion is concerned…
(Surat al-Baqara: 256)
Remind, then, if the reminder benefits. (Surat al-A'la:
Believers enjoin good not only upon the ignorant who are irreligious
but also upon believers. That is because, man makes mistakes not only
because of lack of knowledge but also because he is forgetful or gives
in to the temptations of his lower soul. In such situations, believers
remind one another of the commands of the Qur'an, thereby enjoining good
and forbidding evil. They warn each other, aware that only those who have
faith and do good deeds are worthy of the Garden and that those who do
not avoid evil will suffer a grievous torment in hell. Allah declares
that all believers are each other's guardians:
The men and women of the believers are friends of one
another. They command what is right and forbid what is wrong, and establish
prayer and pay welfare charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. They
are the people on whom Allah will have mercy. Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.
(Surat at-Tawba: 71)
Furthermore, believers never feel exhausted in fulfilling this act of
worship. No matter how frequently other people make mistakes, they never
cease to warn and remind them with patience, compassion and affection.
That is because, in numerous verses, Allah proclaims that He loves those
who are patient and enjoins believers to be patient in living by Qur'anic
Repelling the Bad with Something Better
In the Qur'an, Allah commands believers to repel the bad with something
A good action and a bad action are not the same. Repel
the bad with something better and, if there is enmity between you and
someone else, he will be like a bosom friend. (Surah Fussilat: 34)
Ward off evil with what is better. We know very well
what they express. (Surat al-Muminun: 96)
As is evident from the above verses, Allah promises believers that they
will attain goodness when they repel evil with good. He further points
out that even in situations of enmity, the relationship between foes turns
into a warm friendship.
This is also what believers' understanding of mercy entails. When believers
witness an attitude that does not please Allah, they primarily approach
the offenders humbly and with tolerance, without falling a prey to pride.
That is because they know that arrogance would have an adverse effect
on their lives in the hereafter. Unlike those who do not observe Qur'anic
morality, they do not hold a flawed rationale and say, "He is the one
who has done wrong; he should act humbly", or "Let him do whatever he
wishes". They recognise that Allah loves those who display the best attitude
and showing a good attitude even when one is subjected to wickedness is
acting in compliance with the Qur'an. This being the case, they know that
acting humbly is not a loss but a great gain in the sight of Allah.
Believers encounter various different people throughout their lives.
Yet, they never deviate from their moral code because of others' attitudes.
Some people may speak derisively and be offensive in their words. They
may show anger, enmity or do harm. However, a believer always perseveres
in modesty, graciousness and compassion; he never responds to evil words
in a similar vein. He does not mock people who mock him or display anger
to someone who is angry with him. He remains calm when subjected to ignoble
treatment. He even assumes a compassionate and tolerant attitude towards
a person who has done him harm. Ultimately, in the face of the sublime
disposition of the believer, the wrongdoer feels ashamed of his behaviour
and yearns to have such a noble character.
No doubt, while displaying all these attitudes, believers remain rational;
they never let others do any harm or injustice to themselves or to other
believers. Meanwhile, with the good attitude they show, they display the
beauty of the values of the Qur'an, which draws people nearer to the morality
that pleases Allah.
We need always to remember that the evil attitude shown by other people
is not an excuse for us to deviate from our own high moral standards,
a lapse with which Allah would not be pleased. After all, for one's deeds,
everyone is himself responsible to his Creator. Furthermore, according
to the Qur'an, being able to show compassion, mercy and goodness when
confronted with an evil attitude is a sign of a sublime adherence to morality.
That is because, this praiseworthy attitude of a believer makes manifest
the strength of his loyalty to Allah. Indeed, the person in question patiently
displays such an attitude only to please Allah.
In return for nobly displaying patience in order to live up to Qur'anic
morality, Allah proclaims that there will be a twofold reward:
They will be given their reward twice over because they
have been steadfast and because they ward off the bad with the good and
give from what we have provided for them. (Surat al-Qasas: 54)
Treating People Kindly
We did not create the heavens and earth and everything
between them, except with truth. The Hour is certainly coming, so overlook
(any human faults) with gracious forgiveness. (Surat al-Hijr: 85)
Allah enjoins believers to "overlook any human faults with gracious forgiveness".
The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, also encouraged
believers towards this attribute of good character by saying, "Every act
of kindness is a charity" (Bukhari). This is an understanding of morality
stemming from a believer's fear of Allah and his loyalty to Him. For this
reason, a believer never swerves from code of conduct and, in order to
earn Allah's approval, he treats people kindly throughout his life.
Whether the person dealt with is well-off or poor, young or old, a man
or a woman does not alter a believer's morality. Not expecting any worldly
reward in return for his attitude, a believer does not assess people by
such yardsticks. Indeed, Allah sets the criteria for this in the following
Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him.
Be good to your parents and relatives and to orphans and the very poor,
and to neighbours who are related to you and neighbours who are not related
to you, and to companions and travellers and your slaves. Allah does not
love anyone vain or boastful. (Surat an-Nisa': 36)
By Quranic standards, a Muslim is held responsible for treating all people
kindly. However, this does not mean that he should approve the flawed
reasoning or turn a blind eye to erroneous ideas. A believer always remains
committed to the true path of Allah and never yields to the erroneous
rationale of those he deals with. If someone is wrong in his attitude,
a believer approaches him sincerely and compassionately and strives to
encourage him to behave righteously. The believers' approach to disbelievers
while communicating religion sets a good example of this. One of the examples
Allah gives us in the Qur'an is the manner in which the Prophet Musa,
peace be upon him, communicated Allah's religion to the Pharaoh, the then
ruler of Egypt. Allah enjoins Musa, peace be upon him, to communicate
His religion to the Pharaoh but to speak gently while doing so:
Go, you and your brother, with My Signs and do not slacken
in remembering Me. Go to Pharaoh; he has overstepped the bounds. But speak
to him with gentle words so that hopefully he will pay heed or show some
fear. (Surah Ta Ha: 42-44)
Following the commands of Allah, the Prophet Musa and his brother, the
Prophet Harun, peace be upon them both, approached the Pharaoh with compassion
and humbleness, in spite of the latter's insolence, and his cruel and
Putting Things Right Between People
As stated earlier, the believers' understanding of compassion always
leads them to treat people kindly. They never display a hostile, obstructive
or destructive manner and they lead the people around them to the truth.
Being sincere adherents of Qur'anic ethics, they have a peaceful, conciliatory
and constructive disposition. The fights, quarrels or disputes often engaged
in by people who are distant from the values of the Qur'an, never figure
in a believer's life, since he knows these are described in the Qur'an
as totally despicable. This being the case, they forgive, show tolerance
and enjoin the good, no matter what the circumstances, as the Prophet,
may Allah bless him and grant him peace, also recommended in a hadith:
"Allah is the Forbearer and loves forbearance in all matters.'' (Bukhari
They also exhort other people to accept this standard of morality and
remind them that this is what pleases Allah most and brings better rewards
in the hereafter. All along, they conduct themselves in a manner pleasing
to Allah, by resolving the issues which people have with each other.
Allah proclaims that those who display such a standard of morality only
to seek Allah's pleasure, will be bountifully rewarded:
There is no good in much of their secret talk, except
in the case of those who enjoin charity, or what is right, or putting
things right between people. If anyone does that, seeking the pleasure
of Allah, We will give him an immense reward. (Surat an-Nisa': 114)
People, who consider human existence to be confined to the life of this
world, are not likely to make sacrifices for other people, unless there
is some serious advantage to be gained. That is because they forget that
they will encounter all their evil acts and good deeds in the hereafter.
Believers, on the other hand, having no doubts about the existence of
the hereafter, know that they will be rewarded for each deed they engage
in and similarly feel regret for the things they neglected. This being
the case, they try to live up to the values of the Qur'an in the best
way they can.
In numerous verses, Allah makes clear the importance of making sacrifices.
Hence, believers strive to express the compassion and love they feel for
other believers by the self-sacrificing manners they assume.
For someone to experience sacrifice as defined in the Qur'an in its real
sense, he must primarily set aside all his selfish feelings and desires.
Otherwise, guided by his worldly ambitions, he would wish to have the
best of everything for himself. Believers are aware that everything in
this world that has been given to them is but a temporary favour to test
them and that they will have the best of everything in the hereafter,
provided that they adopt the values of the Qur'an. For this reason, they
take pleasure in giving something they like to someone else or giving
priority to others so that they may experience something pleasurable.
Indeed, Allah informs us that people can never attain true goodness unless
they give away the things they love:
You will not attain true goodness until you give of what
you love. Whatever you give away, Allah knows it. (Surah Al 'Imran: 92)
Believers derive great pleasure from knowing that their sacrifices please
other believers. They know as a matter of conscience that this is the
right attitude and thus feel at ease in displaying an attitude that pleases
Even in situations where they themselves are in need, they do not hesitate
to waive their rights. They do not praise themselves by expressing the
sacrifices they make or try to make other people feel indebted for these
sacrifices. This meritorious understanding of sacrifice is stressed in
the following verse:
Those who were already settled in the abode, and in faith,
before they came, love those who have migrated to them and do not find
in their hearts any need for what they have been given and prefer them
to themselves even if they themselves are needy. It is the people who
are safe-guarded from the avarice of their own selves who are successful.
(Surat al-Hashr: 9)
Praying for the Believers' Hereafter
One of the most gracious acts of compassion among believers is to pray
for each other's good. They know that their Lord is the Almighty, Who
is capable of doing anything at any moment, if He wills. Our Lord invites
believers to call on Him by praying and assures believers that their prayers
will be answered:
If My servants ask you about Me, I am near. I answer
the call of the caller when he calls on Me. They should therefore respond
to Me and believe in Me so that hopefully they will be rightly guided.
(Surat al-Baqara: 186)
Indeed, believers wholeheartedly answer the call of Allah and ask for
all kinds of fine things both for this world and the hereafter. Out of
their compassion for other believers, they also pray for their good. Whatever
they wish for themselves, they also ask for on behalf of other believers.
Furthermore, their understanding of compassion is so noble that they ask
for better things for other believers.
The main reason for their compassion is their unshakable faith in the
eternal life, which is due to begin after death. They always pray for
a blissful life-endowed with Allah's mercy-for believers in the Garden.
They call upon Allah and ask Him to improve the morality of themselves
and their brothers, to protect them from evil deeds, to forgive them and
reward them with the Garden.
There is no doubt that this is a very elevated moral code, considering
that people are, by nature, prone to strive for their own good and comfort,
and tend to keep the better things for themselves. Unlike this example,
the fact that believers also show consideration for their brothers is
a manifestation of their elevated morality. This is also stressed in the
Qur'an in numerous prayers of believers:
"…Our Lord, do not take us to task if we forget or make
a mistake! Our Lord, do not place on us a load like the one You placed
on those before us! Our Lord, do not place on us a load we have not the
strength to bear! And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy on us.
You are our Master, so help us against disbelieving people." (Surat al-Baqara:
"…Our Lord, pour down steadfastness upon us and take
us back to You as Muslims." (Surat al-A'raf: 126)
And there are others who say, "Our Lord, give us good
in this world, and good in the hereafter, and safeguard us from the punishment
of the Fire". (Surat al-Baqara: 201)
"Our Lord, do not make our hearts swerve aside after
You have guided us. And give us mercy from You. You are the Ever-Giving.
Our Lord, You are the Gatherer of mankind to a Day of which there is no
doubt. Allah will not break His promise". (Surah Al 'Imran: 8-9)
Praying for the Next Generation's Faith
In the Qur'an, Allah commands believers to show deep compassion and care
for the young children they will leave behind after their death. For this
reason, when believers grow old and draw near to death, they pay the utmost
attention to not leaving their young children unassisted. They raise them
as people of faith and teach them how to be trustworthy, wise and of high
People should show concern in the same way that they
would fear for small children if they were to die leaving them behind.
They should heed Allah and say words that are appropriate. (Surat an-Nisa':
In this regard, Allah gives numerous examples from the lives of the prophets.
The prophets prayed both for their children and the generations that would
succeed them, and struggled to raise them as Muslims of sublime morality.
Some of the examples related in the Qur'an are as follows:
When Ibrahim said, "My Lord! Make this land a place of
safety and keep me and my sons from worshipping idols". (Surah Ibrahim:
"My Lord! Make me and my descendants people who establish
prayer. My Lord! Accept my prayer." (Surah Ibrahim: 40)
Those who say, "Our Lord, give us joy in our wives and
children and make us a good example for those who do their duty". (Surat
And when Ibrahim built the foundations of the House with
Isma'il: "Our Lord, accept this from us! You are the All-Hearing, the
All-Knowing. Our Lord, make us both Muslims submitted to You, and our
descendants a Muslim community submitted to You. Show us our rites of
worship and turn towards us. You are the Ever-Returning, the Most Merciful".
(Surat al-Baqara: 127-128)
When his Lord said to him, "Become a Muslim!" he said,
"I am a Muslim who has submitted to the Lord of all the worlds". Ibrahim
directed his sons to this, as did Ya'qub: "My sons! Allah has chosen this
religion for you, so do not die except as Muslims". (Surat al-Baqara:
Asking Forgiveness for Believers' Mistakes
Know then that there is no god except Allah and ask forgiveness
for your wrongdoing, and for the men and women who believe. Allah knows
both your activity and your repose. (Surah Muhammad: 19)
The kind of compassion imbued by the Qur'an in believers manifests itself
in the way believers care for one another. They feel fear-fear of torment
in hell-not only for themselves, but also for other believers. They wish
that their brothers may also attain eternal salvation just as they wish
it for themselves. Therefore, they pray for forgiveness. There are numerous
verses in the Qur'an explaining this delicate understanding of compassion
"Our Lord, those You cast into the Fire, You have indeed
disgraced. The wrongdoers will have no helpers".
"Our Lord, we heard a caller calling us to belief: 'Believe
in your Lord!' and we believed. Our Lord, forgive us our wrong actions,
erase our bad actions from us and take us back to You with those who are
"Our Lord, give us what You promised us through Your
Messengers, and do not disgrace us on the Day of Rising. You do not break
Your promise." (Surah Al 'Imran: 192-194)
All they said was, "Our Lord, forgive us our wrong actions
and any excesses we went to in what we did and make our feet firm and
help us against these disbelieving people". (Surah Al 'Imran: 147)
"My Lord! Make me and my descendants people who establish
prayer. My Lord! Accept my prayer. Our Lord! Forgive me and my parents
and the believers on the Day the Reckoning takes place". (Surah Ibrahim:
Moreover, believers also pray for the believers of the past generations,
because no matter in which period or place they lived, believers are always
brothers. We again find examples of believers praying for believers of
past generations again in the Qur'an:
Those who have come after them say, "Our Lord, forgive
us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and do not put any rancour
in our hearts towards those who believe. Our Lord, You are All-Gentle,
Most Merciful". (Surat al-Hashr: 10)
Not Mocking Others
In societies where the values of religion are not upheld, "mocking other
people" does not disturb people so long as they are not the ones being
mocked. Besides, this is considered "fun". For this reason, they indulge
in mockery whenever they have the opportunity. What they actually try
to accomplish with such misdemeanours is to exalt themselves while they
humiliate others. For them, any weakness of a human being can be the subject
of derision. A mispronunciation, the physical make-up of an individual,
lameness, obesity or anything such as sneezing or staggering can be made
a mockery of.
However, believers never descend to such behaviour. After all, they know
that mockery is severely condemned in the Qur'an and that it is conduct
disapproved of by Allah:
You who believe! People should not ridicule others who
may be better than themselves; nor should any women ridicule other women
who may be better than themselves… (Surat al-Hujurat: 11)
The criteria taken into account by believers while assessing others are
their faith, good values and sincere efforts to draw nearer to Allah.
This being the case, they never humiliate or provoke anyone because of
his physical weaknesses. On the contrary, these weaknesses evoke feelings
of mercy in believers and thus they make a sincere effort to eliminate
them. Similarly, believers never embarrass others because they mispronounce
a word, stumble, or fail to deal with the kind of unfavourable situation
which one may encounter at any time.
Moreover, believers never indulge in offensive behaviour, such as mockery,
just to amuse themselves. They take no pleasure from a joke, conversation
or attitude which is intended to offend people. They never lapse into
such behaviour. Furthermore, in any incident in which an individual is
mocked or humiliated, they can never remain silent. Believers are entirely
on the side of the person who is being harassed and never let others hurt
him. As a matter of conscience, they can imagine how such behaviour as
they would never like to experience themselves, can also cause offence
All this meticulous attention to proper behaviour is because of their
fear of Allah and the exemplary moral values to which they adhere. Their
conscience and understanding of compassion prevent them from engaging
in any such graceless act as mockery. Besides, aware that Allah warns
mockers of a bitter torment in hell, they strictly avoid such an attitude:
Woe to every scorner and mocker who has amassed wealth
and hoarded it!
He thinks his wealth will make him live for ever.
No indeed! He will be flung into the Shatterer.
And what will convey to you what the Shatterer is?
The kindled Fire of Allah reaching right into the heart.
It is sealed in above them in towering columns. (Surat al-Humaza: 1-9)
Not to Call People by Derogatory Nicknames
The Qur'an commands believers not to violate the rights of others and
believers are sedulous in complying with this command; they always treat
each other with respect, esteem and honour. One habit they particularly
avoid is calling one another by offensive nicknames.
As we know, this is quite prevalent in societies in which people do not
live by the values of the Qur'an. Often, they have ulterior motives in
doing so. The negative impressions people avoid sharing with one another
are mostly expressed by giving nicknames to people. Sometimes, the intention
is to humiliate, ridicule or offend people. These names often express
other's errors or weaknesses. Hence, every time someone is called by his
nickname, he is ridiculed and thereby offended. Believers, however, never
use a name that would cause resentment to others because of Allah's commandment:
You who believe! People should not ridicule others who
may be better than themselves; nor should any women ridicule other women
who may be better than themselves. And do not find fault with one another
or insult each other with derogatory nicknames. How evil it is to have
a name for evil conduct after coming to belief! Those people who do not
turn from it are wrongdoers. (Surat al-Hujurat: 11)
In compliance with Allah's command, believers are frank enough to express
one another's faults and thereby purify them of these flaws. Since they
openly and sincerely express their opinion, they never feel the need to
This is, at the same time, a clear manifestation of the compassion believers
feel for one another. They never adopt even the slightest attitude that
would cause uneasiness or distress to others. Through these values, they
become role models for those who do not adhere to the values of the Qur'an.
Feeding the Needy out of the Inheritance
As is stressed throughout this book, Allah urges people to be compassionate
towards the needy and not to ignore the needs of the poor. He draws attention
to the fact that sharing one's possessions and money with the needy is
a deed with which He would be pleased. Furthermore, when someone inherits
wealth, it is recommended that he allocate a certain share to the poor.
This is why, when believers inherit, they give relatives, orphans and
the poor a certain share. Allah's recommendation regarding this is expressed
as follows in the Qur'an:
If other relatives or orphans or poor people attend the
sharing-out, provide for them out of it and speak to them correctly and
courteously. (Surat an-Nisa': 8)
This practice of believers also makes manifest the elevated nature of
their conscience and compassion. They never amass a fortune while they
are surrounded with many needy people.
Unlike believers, when those who are strangers to the values of the Qur'an
become heirs, let alone sharing what thus inherit with the poor, they
try to keep it a secret. That is because, they feel concerned that once
it becomes known, many people including their relatives, orphans and the
poor would ask for help. Although they have the means, they do not suffer
the slightest pangs of conscience to see such people in need and to leave
them unassisted. They wish to possess the best of everything and to spend
for their own pleasure. Otherwise, they feel this is a great loss.
Believers, on the other hand, in compliance with Allah's Will, willingly
give to the needy even if they never ask for it. Such compassion will
be rewarded in the hereafter as follows:
Nor will they give away any amount, whether large or
small, nor will they cross any valley, without it being written down for
them so that Allah can recompense them for the best of what they did.
(Surat at-Tawba: 121)
Giving the Best of Everything in Alms
People who do not abide by the Qur'an perceive giving alms as giving
away old possessions that are no longer needed. This is rather like a
tradition they hold to. In the process, they are very careful not to include
any of the things for which they feel some attachment. Often their main
purpose is to get rid of old possessions and thus create a false image
of doing good. In one verse, Allah draws attention to the fact that their
intention is often to show off:
And also for those who spend their wealth to show off
to people, not having belief in Allah and the Last Day. Anyone who has
made Devil his comrade, what an evil comrade he is! (Surat an-Nisa': 38)
Giving away a possession one does not feel like using because it is outmoded
is a sign of deeming the recipient inferior. Because such donors rank
people according to their money, they do not consider a needy person worthy
of respect. Consequently, they think it is not proper to allocate the
best of what they have to poor people. However, the Qur'an commands as
You who believe! Give away some of the good things you
have earned and some of what the earth produces for you. Do not have recourse
to bad things when you give, things you would only take with your eyes
tight shut! Know that Allah is Rich Beyond Need, Praiseworthy. (Surat
The justice and compassion of believers call for the rights of all believers
to be protected; believers can never accept that other believers should
have lower living standards than their own and thus be in difficulties,
when they themselves enjoy better conditions. Similarly, they do not allow
others to consider needy people as being worthy only of inferior conditions.
To needy believers, they try to provide the best conditions they can afford,
so that they can also attain a standard of living at least matching their
While giving in charity to earn Allah's approval, it is essential to
make sacrifices from the possessions for which one feels some attachment
rather than what one's lower self would not like to give away. As is clear,
it is not a sacrifice to give away something to which a person attaches
no importance. By listening to their conscience, believers can readily
make this distinction. They choose the things that are to be given away
from the fine food and clothing they have and the possessions they cherish.
This is a clear manifestation of the mercy and compassion they have for
The following is another verse by which Allah encourages believers to
give of the things they hold dear:
You will not attain true goodness until you give of what
you love. Whatever you give away, Allah knows it. (Surah Al 'Imran: 92)
Being Honest in Trade
Believers' feelings of compassion make them honest, delicate and kind
towards others. For this reason, let alone "committing fraud in trade",
believers even disallow the slightest mistake or carelessness that may
cause harm or trouble to believers or that may put them in difficulty.
They are very meticulous about protecting people's rights and maintaining
justice. They never commit the sin of using up anyone's hard earned possessions
unjustly, nor do they allow anyone else to engage in such a misdeed, which
they consider the result of a cruel attitude. That is because Allah's
command on this is explicit:
Give full measure when you measure and weigh with a level
balance. That is better and gives the best result. (Surat al-Isra: 35)
As is seen in the above verse, Allah enjoins believers to be honest in
trade, and not to cheat in measurement, weight or calculation, because
that is ultimately the best way to conduct oneself.
Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and
grant him peace, also mentioned the importance of honest trade in a saying
to the owners of measurements and weights: "You have been certainly entrusted
with two affairs about which the former nations before you were destroyed".
However, there are some who, despite being aware of these warnings, persist
in fraudulent dealings. When they feel sure that nobody is watching them,
they do not hesitate to unjustly take others' money, goods and possessions
or to cheat in measurement, weight or calculation. They consider it an
advantage when the client does not understand that he has been cheated,
and they assume that the money they make or the goods they acquire by
means of deception will be of avail to them. However, since all such acts
are unlawful in the sight of Allah, they are of no benefit to the doer.
Allah thus warns those who are dishonest:
Woe to the stinters! Those who, when they take a measure
from people, exact full measure, but when they give them a measure or
weight, hand over less than is due. Do such people not realise that they
will be raised up on a Terrible Day, the Day mankind will stand before
the Lord of all the worlds? (Surat al-Mutaffifin: 1-6)
All messengers of Allah sent throughout history also commanded their
people to be just in measure and calculation and not to cheat people.
In numerous verses, the warnings of these messengers are conveyed to us.
The message of the Prophet Shu'aib, peace be upon him, who was sent to
Madyan, illustrates this sensitive approach explicitly:
And to Madyan We sent their brother Shu'ayb who said,
"My people, worship Allah! You have no other god than Him. A Clear Sign
has come to you from your Lord. Give full measure and full weight. Do
not diminish people's goods. Do not cause corruption in the land after
it has been put right. That is better for you if you are believers". (Surat
Not to Harm Children for Fear of Poverty
Deliberately or unintentionally, it is impossible that a believer could
cause harm to an innocent person. No matter what the circumstances, for
his own sake, a believer does not display an attitude which may cause
hardship to another. He does not cause any material loss to anyone else
while trying to earn for himself. He does not risk someone else's health
to save his own. Neither does he secure own well-being through others'
starvation. In brief, he always gives priority to the needs, peace and
well-being of others. Even if it be a child, a captive or someone he has
never known, a believer, thanks to his compassion, always considers others'
advantage before his own. In order to display such nobility, he makes
all kinds of sacrifices.
In the Qur'an, Allah gives examples of those who attempt to kill their
children for fear of not being able to look after them and warns them
against such a cruel and violent attitude:
Say: "Come and I will recite to you what your Lord has
forbidden for you: that you do not associate anything with Him; that you
are good to your parents; that you do not kill your children because of
poverty-We will provide for you and them…" (Surat al-An'am: 151)
Do not kill your children out of fear of being poor.
We will provide for them and you. Killing them is a terrible mistake.
(Surat al-Isra': 31)
It may be that "killing children out of fear of poverty" or "burying
them alive"-all practices peculiar to pre-Islamic societies, are not common
in our day. Yet, in modern societies, a different form of this crime is
committed: abandoning children on the streets for fear of poverty.
Believers take refuge in Allah from committing such a crime and feel
a deep fear of the grievous end of those who commit such a crime. Indeed,
the compassion imbued in them by Qur'anic morality forbids them to perpetrate
such cruelty upon another human being-let alone upon a small child, simply
out of concern for their future. If they are really in a difficult situation
due to poverty, they try to eliminate this problem by developing viable
solutions within the limits of the Qur'an.