We Hear All Types Of Sound In Our Brains
The hearing process also operates in a similar manner to the visual process.
In other words, we hear sounds in our brains in the same way that we see
the view of the outside world in our brains. The ear captures the sounds
around us and delivers them to the middle ear. The middle ear amplifies
the sound vibrations and delivers them to the inner ear. The inner ear
transforms these sound vibrations into electric signals, on the basis
of their frequency and intensity, and then transmits them to the brain.
These messages in the brain are then sent to the hearing center where
the sounds are interpreted. Therefore, the hearing process takes place
in the hearing center in essentially the same way that the seeing process
takes place in the seeing center.
The outer ear captures sound waves and delivers them to the middle
ear. The middle ear amplifies these sounds and transmits them to
the inner ear. The inner ear converts these sounds into electric
signals on the basis of their intensity and frequency and then sends
them to the brain.
Therefore, actual sounds do not exist outside our brains, even though
there are physical vibrations we call sound waves. These sound waves are
not transformed into sounds outside or inside our ears, but rather inside
our brains. As the visual process is not performed by our eyes, neither
do our ears perform the hearing process. For example, when you are having
a chat with a friend, you observe the sight of your friend in your brain,
and hear his or her voice in your brain. As the view in your brain is
formed, you will have a deep feeling of three dimensions, and your friend's
voice is also heard with a similar feeling of depth. For example, you
could see your friend as being a long way from you, or sitting behind
you; accordingly you feel his voice as if it is coming from him, from
near you or from your back. However, your friend's voice is not far away
or behind you. It is in your brain.
The extraordinariness about the real nature of the sound you hear is
not limited to this. The brain is actually both lightproof and soundproof.
Sound never in fact reaches the brain. Therefore, despite the volume of
the sounds you hear, the interior of your brain is actually very quiet.
However, you hear noise, such as voices, very clearly in your brain. They
are so clear that a healthy person hears them without difficulties or
distortions. You hear the symphony of an orchestra in your soundproof
brain; you can hear all the sounds in a wide range of frequencies and
decibel from the sounds of the leaves to the sounds of jet planes. When
you go to a concert of your favorite singer, the deep and loud noise that
fills the whole stadium is formed in the deep silence of your brain. When
you sing by yourself loudly you hear the sound in your brain. However,
if you were able to record the sound in your brain with a tape recorder
at that moment, you would hear only silence. This is an extraordinary
fact. The electrical signals that reach the brain are heard in your brain
as sound, for example the sound of a concert in a stadium filled with
PRESUME THE EXISTENCE OF A MATERIAL WORLD OUTSIDE OF OUR BRAINS,
LIGHT, SOUND AND COLORS DO NOT EXIST; ONLY ENERGY EXISTS
Although the fact that all of our senses
are formed inside our brains has been scientifically proven, many
people still claim that the originals of the images we see exist
outside our brains. However, they will never be able to prove this
claim. Additionally, although they believe the material exists outside
of their brains, as mentioned before, light, sound or colors do
not exist outside of our brains. Light only exists outside in the
form of energy waves and packets of energy, and we only become aware
of light when it hits the retina. Similarly, there is no sound.
There are only energy waves. Sound only forms when these energy
waves reach our ears and are subsequently transmitted to our brains.
There is no color outside, either. When we say "there is no color"
people might think of a view of black, white or gray. In fact, these
are also colors. In the world outside of our brains even the colors
of black, white and gray do not exist. Only energy waves in varying
strength and frequency exist, and these energy waves are only converted
into colors through the cells in the eye and the brain.
||The brain is soundproof
as well as lightproof. Therefore, even if the noises we
hear are loud, the insides of our brains are very quiet.
However, in this silence, there is a consciousness that
can interpret electrical signals as a melody that he or
she loves, or as the voice of a friend or the sound of
the telephone ringing.
Quantum physics is another branch of science
which shows that claims for the existence of matter are unjustified.
The most important truth discovered by quantum physics, which leaves
materialists speechless, is that matter is 99.9999999% empty. In
his studies of physics and psychology, Peter Russell often makes
comments about human consciousness. In an essay adapted from his
book, From Science To God, Russell explains this truth thusly:
Take, for example, our ideas as to the
nature of matter. For two thousand years it was believed that atoms
were tiny balls of solid matter-a model clearly drawn from everyday
experience. Then, as physicists discovered that atoms were composed
of more elementary, subatomic, particles (electrons, protons, neutrons,
and suchlike), the model shifted to one of a central nucleus surrounded
by orbiting electrons-again a model based on experience.
An atom may be small, a mere billionth
of an inch across, but these subatomic particles are a hundred-thousand
times smaller still. Imagine the nucleus of an atom magnified to
the size of a grain of rice. The whole atom would then be the size
of a football stadium, and the electrons would be other grains of
rice flying round the stands. As the early twentieth-century British
physicist Sir Arthur Eddington put it, "matter is mostly ghostly
empty space"-99.9999999 percent empty space, to be a little more
With the advent of quantum theory, it
was found that even these minute subatomic particles were themselves
far from solid. In fact, they are not much like matter at all-at
least nothing like matter as we know it. They can't be pinned down
and measured precisely. They are more like fuzzy clouds of potential
existence, with no definite location. Much of the time they seem
more like waves than particles. (Peter Russell, The Mystery of Consciousness
and the Meaning of Light, 12 Oct 2000,
We can thus see that, while many claim
that what they see in their brains exists outside themselves, science
shows us that beyond the confines of our brain, there are only energy
waves and energy packets. Beyond our brain there is no light, no
sound and no color. Additionally, atoms and subatomic particles
that form a material are actually loose groups of energy. As a result,
although some people believe in the existence of material, material
is comprised of space.
In reality, God creates matter through
a vision with these qualities.
All Smells Occur In The Brain
If someone is asked how he senses the smells around him, he would probably
say "with my nose". However, this answer is not the right one, even though
most people would instantly conclude that it was the truth. Gordon Shepherd,
a professor of neurology from Yale University, explains why this is incorrect;
"We think that we smell with our noses, [but] this is a little like
saying that we hear with our ear lobes."9
A person smelling roses in his or her garden does not, in reality,
smell the originals of the roses. What he or she senses is an interpretation
of electrical signals by his or her brain. However, the smell seems
so real that the person would never understand that he or she is
not smelling the original rose, and many people therefore suppose
that they are smelling the real rose. This is a great miracle created
Our sense of smell works in a similar mechanism to our other sense organs.
In fact, the only function of the nose is its ability to act as an intake
channel for smell molecules. Volatile molecules such as vanilla, or the
scent of a rose, come to receptors located on hairs in a part of the nose
called the epithelium and interact with them. The result of the interaction
of the smell molecules with the epithelium reaches the brain as an electric
signal. These electric signals are then perceived as a scent by the brain.
Thus, all smells which we interpret as good or bad are merely perceptions
generated in the brain after the interaction with volatile molecules has
been transduced into electric signals. The fragrance of perfume, of a
flower, of a food which you like, of the sea-in short all smells you may
or may not like-are perceived in the brain. However, the smell molecules
never actually reach the brain. In our sense of smell, it is only electrical
signals which reach the brain, as happens with sound and sight.
Consequently, a smell does not travel in any particular direction, because
all smells are perceived by the smell center in the brain. For example,
the smell of a cake does not come from the oven, in the same way that
the smell of the dish does not come from the kitchen. Likewise, the smell
of honeysuckle does not come from the garden and the smell of the sea,
some distance away from you, does not come from the sea. All of these
smells are sensed at one point, in a related area of the brain. There
is no concept of right or left, front or back, outside of this sense center.
Although each of the senses seem to occur with different effects, and
may appear to be coming from different directions, they all in fact occur
within the brain. The smells which occur in the smell
center of the brain are assumed to be the smells of outside materials.
However, the image of the rose is generated in the sight center and the
smell of a rose is generated in the smell center. If there is a genuine
smell outside, you can never reach the original of it.
George Berkeley, a philosopher who has realized the importance of this
truth, says "At the beginning, it was believed that colors, odors,
etc., 'really exist,' but subsequently such views were renounced, and
it was seen that they only exist in dependence on our sensations."
It may be instructive to consider dreams in order to understand that
smell is only a sensation. When people dream, in the same way that all
images are seen very realistically, smells are also perceived as if they
were real. For example, a person who goes to a restaurant in his dream
may choose his dinner amid the smells of the foods that are on the menu;
someone who dreams of going on a trip to the sea side senses the distinctive
smell of the sea, and someone who dreams of a daisy garden would experience,
in his dream, the pleasure of the magnificent scents. Likewise, someone
who dreams of going to a perfume shop and choosing a perfume would be
able to distinguish between the smells of the perfumes, one by one. Everything
in the dream is so realistic that when the person wakes up, he or she
might be surprised by this situation.
In fact, it is not necessary to examine dreams to understand the subject.
It is even sufficient to imagine one of the depictions that were mentioned,
such as the example of the daisy. If you concentrate on the daisy, you
can feel as if you are aware of its scent, even though it isn't there.
The scent is now occurring in the brain. If you want to visualize your
mother in your mind, you can see her in your mind, even though she isn't
there in front of you; in the same way you can imagine the smell of the
lily, even though it isn't there.
ALL SMELLS TAKE PLACE WITHIN OUR
BRAIN THERE IS NO SMELL IN THE OUTSIDE WORLD
Michael Posner, a psychologist and Marcus Raichle, a neurologist from
Washington University comment on the issue of how sight and other senses
occur, even in the absence of an external stimulus:
Open your eyes, and a scene fills your view effortlessly;
close your eyes and think of that scene, and you can summon an image of
it, certainly not as vivid, solid, or complete as a scene you see with
your eyes, but still one that captures the scene's essential characteristics.
In both cases, an image of the scene is formed in the mind. The image
formed from actual visual experiences is called a "percept" to distinguish
it from an imagined image. The percept is formed as the result of light
hitting the retina and sending signals that are further processed in the
brain. But how are we able to create an image when no light is hitting
the retina to send such signals?10
The purpose of the nose is to receive smell signals and transmit
them to the brain. The smell of soup, or a rose, is sensed in the
brain. However, a person can sense the smell of the rose or soup
in his dream, even in the absence of any soup or roses. God forms
such a convincing collection of senses within the brain with the
taste, smell, vision, sense of touch and sound that it takes a lot
of explanation to demonstrate to people that all of these feelings
occur in the brain and that they are actually not dealing with the
originals of anything they see. This is the magnificent knowledge
A person can picture the face of his wife or imagine the smell of
a daisy in his brain with little concentration. The question then
is that who is seeing without the need of an eye or smelling without
the need of a nose things that physically do not exist nearby? This
being is the soul of the person.
There is no need for an external source to form an image in your mind.
This same situation holds true for the sense of smell. In the same way
as you are aware of a smell which does not really exist in your dreams
or imagination, you cannot be sure whether or not those objects, which
you smell in real life, exist outside you. Even if you assume that these
objects exist outside of you, you can never deal with the original objects.
All Tastes Occur In The Brain
The sense of taste can be explained in a manner similar to those of the
other sense organs. Tasting is caused by little buds in the tongue and
throat. The tongue can detect four different tastes, bitter, sour, sweet
and salty. Taste buds, after a chain of processes, transform sensory
information into electrical signals and then transfer them to the brain.
Subsequently, those signals are perceived by the brain as tastes. The
taste that you experience when you eat a cake, yogurt, a lemon or a fruit
is, in reality, a process that interprets electrical signals in the brain.
An image of a cake will be linked with the taste of the sugar, all of
which occurs in the brain and everything sensed is related to the cake
which you like so much. The taste that you are conscious of after you
have eaten your cake, with a full appetite, is nothing other than an effect
generated in your brain caused by electrical signals. You are only aware
of what your brain interprets from the external stimuli. You can never
reach the original object; for example you cannot see, smell or taste
the actual chocolate itself. If the taste nerves in your brain were cut
off, it would be impossible for the taste of anything you eat to reach
your brain, and you would entirely lose your sense of taste. The fact
that the tastes of which you are aware seem extraordinarily real should
certainly not deceive you. This is the scientific explanation of the matter.
ALL TASTES OCCUR WITHIN OUR
The Sense Of Touch Also Occurs In The Brain
The sense of touch is one of the factors which prevents people from being
convinced of the aforementioned truth that the senses of sight, hearing
and taste occur within the brain. For example, if you told someone that
he sees a book within his brain, he would, if he didn't think carefully,
reply "I can't be seeing the book in my brain-look, I'm touching it with
my hand". Or, if we said "we cannot know whether the original of this
book exists as a material object outside or not", again the same superficially
minded person might answer "no, look, I'm holding it with my hand and
I feel the hardness of it - that isn't a perception but an existence which
has material reality".
However, there is a fact that such people cannot understand, or perhaps
just ignore. The sense of touch also occurs in the brain as much as
do all the other senses. That is to say, when you touch a material object,
you sense whether it is hard, soft, wet, sticky or silky in the brain.
The effects that come from your fingertips are transmitted to the brain
as an electrical signal and these signals are perceived in the brain as
the sense of touch. For instance, if you touch a rough surface, you can
never know whether the surface is, in reality, indeed a rough surface,
or how a rough surface actually feels. That is because you can never touch
the original of a rough surface. The knowledge that you have about touching
a surface is your brain's interpretation of certain stimuli.
A person chatting to a close friend while drinking a cup of tea immediately
lets go of the cup when he burns his hand on the hot cup. However, in
reality, that person feels the heat of the cup in his mind, not in his
hand. The same person visualizes the image of the cup of tea in his mind,
and senses the smell and taste of it in his mind. However, this man does
not realize that the tea he enjoys is actually a sensation within his
brain. He assumes that the glass exists outside of himself, and talks
to his friend, whose image occurs again within his brain. In fact, this
is an extraordinary case. The assumption that he is touching the original
glass and drinking the original tea, which appears to be justified by
his impression of the hardness and warmth of the cup and the taste and
smell of the tea, shows the astonishing clarity and perfection of the
senses which exist within one's brain.
THE SENSE OF TOUCH ALSO OCCURS
WITHIN OUR BRAINS
This important truth, which needs careful consideration, is expressed
by twentieth century philosopher Bertrand Russell:
The fact that you are feeling the book you are reading now does
not change the fact that the vision of the book occurs within your
brain. As with the appearance of the book, the sense of touching
the book also takes place in your brain.
As to the sense of touch when we press the table with
our fingers, that is an electric disturbance on the electrons and protons
of our fingertips, produced, according to modern physics, by the proximity
of the electrons and protons in the table. If the same disturbance in
our finger-tips arose in any other way, we should have the sensations,
in spite of there being no table.11
The point that Russell makes here is extremely important. In fact, if
our fingertips are given a stimulus in a different manner, we can sense
entirely different feelings. However, as it will be explained in detail
in due course, today this can be done by mechanical simulators. With the
help of a special glove, a person can feel the sensation of stroking a
cat, shaking hands with someone, washing his hands, or touching a hard
material, even though none of these things may be present. In reality,
of course, none of these sensations represent occurrences in the real
world. This is further evidence that all the sensations felt by a human
being are formed within the mind.
We Can Never Reach The Original Of The World That Occurs
Within Our Brain
As has been demonstrated here, everything that we live through, see,
hear and feel in our life occurs within the brain. For example, someone
who looks out of the window while sitting on an armchair feels the hardness
of the armchair and the slipperiness of the fabric in his brain. The smell
of the coffee coming from the kitchen occurs in the mind, not in the kitchen
some distance away. The view of the sea, birds and trees he sees from
the window are all images formed in the brain. The friend who is serving
the coffee, and the taste of the coffee also exist in the brain.
In short, someone sitting in his living room and looking out of the window
is in reality looking at his living room, and the view seen from the window
on a screen in his brain. What a human being would refer to as "my
life" is a collection of all perceptions being put together in a meaningful
way and watched from a screen in the brain, and one can never come out
of one's brain.
We can never know the true nature of the original of the material world
outside the brain. We cannot know, whether or not the original, for example
the green of a leaf, is as we perceive it. Likewise, we can never find
out if a dessert is really sweet or whether that is just how our brain
perceives it to be.
A person who is observing a particular view supposes that he is
watching the view before his eyes. However, that view actually forms
in the center of vision at the back of the brain. The pertinent
question is this: who is that takes pleasure from watching this
view, if it cannot be the brain, which is made of lipid and protein?
Anyone who considers this will clearly see the truth. One such person,
George Berkeley, expresses this truth in his work A Treatise Concerning
the Principles of Human Knowledge:
By sight I have the ideas of light and colours, with their
several degrees and variations. By touch I perceive hard and soft, heat
and cold, motion and resistance... Smelling furnishes me with odours;
the palate with tastes; and hearing conveys sounds... And as several of
these are observed to accompany each other, they come to be marked by
one name, and so to be reputed as one thing. Thus, for example, a certain
colour, taste, smell, figure and consistence having been observed to go
together, are accounted one distinct thing, signified by the name apple;
other collections of ideas constitute a stone, a tree, a book, and the
like sensible things...12
The truth Berkeley expresses in these words is this: We define an object
by interpreting different sensations that are experienced in the brain.
As is the case in this example, the taste and smell of an apple, its hardness
and roundness and those sensations related with the other qualities of
it are perceived as a whole by our brain and we perceive this whole as
the apple. However, we can never actually deal with the original of the
apple, only our perception of it. What we can see, smell, taste, touch
or hear are only the copies within the brain.
When we consider all that has been discussed up to this point, the truth
will be revealed in all clarity. For example:
If we can see a street full of colorful lights and all the colors with
their own brilliant shadings inside the brain where there is no actual
light, then we are seeing copies of the notice boards, lights, streetlights
and the headlamps of cars which are produced from the electric signals
within the brain.
Since no sound can enter the brain, we can never hear the original of
the voices of loved ones. We hear only copies.
We cannot feel the cool of the sea, the warmth of the sun - we only feel
the copies of them in our brains.
In the same way, nobody has been able to taste the original of mint. The
taste someone would sense as mint is only a perception which occurs in
the brain. This is because the person cannot touch the original of the
mint, see the original of the mint or smell or taste the original of the
Imagine that you are entering a dark room which has a big television
screen inside. If you could only watch the outside world through
this screen, you would naturally get bored of it after a while and
want to get out.
Consider for a moment that the place you are in is no different.
Inside your dark little skull, similar to a box, you watch visions
of the outside world during your life. You continue watching all
of these pictures in your brain without getting out of this small
place and never get tired of it.
In addition to this, you would never believe that you were watching
all of these things from a single screen. The vision is so convincing
that in thousands of years, billions of people were unable to realize
this great reality.
In conclusion, throughout our lives we live with copy-perceptions which
are shown to us. However, these copies are so realistic that we never
realize that they are copies. For example, lift your head and have a look
around the room. You see that you are in a room full of furniture. When
you touch the arms of the armchair in which you are sitting, you feel
the hardness of it as if you are really touching the original of it. The
reality of these images shown to you, and the excellent artistry in the
creation of these images are sufficient to convince you and billions of
other people that the images are "material". Even though most people have
read that every sensation relating to the world is formed in their brains,
since it is taught in high school biology classes, the images are so convincing
that they have difficulty believing that these images are only fantasies
in their brain. The reason for this is that each image is created very
realistically and perfected to an art.
Some people accept that images occur in the brain, yet they claim that
the originals of the images are external. But they can never prove this,
because nobody has been able to move out of the perceptions that exist
in the brain. Everybody lives in the cell that is in the brain, and no
one can experience anything except that which is shown by his perceptions.
Consequently, one can never know what happens outside of his perceptions.
Thus to say "there are originals outside" would in fact be an unjustified
presupposition, because there is nothing that could be held up as evidence.
Furthermore, even if there are originals outside, these "originals" will
again be seen in the brain, meaning that the observer would deal with
the images formed in his or her brain. Consequently such claims are unsupportable
because people are unable to reach the "material equivalents" which they
suppose to exist.
We should also emphasize that scientific or technological development
cannot change anything, as every scientific discovery or technological
invention occurs in the minds of people, and consequently is of no help
to people in reaching the outside world.
The views of renowned philosophers like B. Russell and L. Wittgenstein
on this subject are as follows:
For instance, whether a lemon truly exists or not and
how it came to exist cannot be questioned or investigated. A lemon consists
merely of a taste sensed by the tongue, an odour sensed by the nose, a
colour and shape sensed by the eye; and only these features of it can
be subject to examination and assessment. Science can never know the physical
Philosopher G. Berkeley clearly expressed that our perceptions exist
only in our minds and that we would be mistaken in automatically assuming
that they exist in the outside world:
We believe in the existence of objects just because we
see and touch them, and they are reflected to us by our perceptions. However,
our perceptions are only ideas in our mind. Thus, objects we captivate
by perceptions are nothing but ideas, and these ideas are essentially
in nowhere but our mind
Since all these exist only in the mind, then
it means that we are beguiled by deceptions when we imagine the universe
and things to have an existence outside the mind. So, none of the surrounding
things have an existence out of our mind. 14
In addition, it is of no importance for people whether something which
a person cannot reach, see or touch, exists or not, because regardless
of whether or not there is a material world, a human being only watches
the world of perceptions in his brain. A person can never come across
the true original of a material. Furthermore it is enough for everyone
to see the copy. For example, someone who wanders around a garden with
colorful flowers is not seeing the original of the garden, but the copy
of it in his brain. However, this copy of the garden is so realistic that
everyone receives some pleasure from the garden, as if it were real when
in fact it is imaginary. Billions of people, right up until the present
day, have assumed that they have been seeing the original of everything.
Consequently, there is no reason for people to be interested in the "outside".
The Sense Of Distance Is Also A Perception That Occurs
In The Brain
Imagine a crowd on a street, with shops, buildings, cars, horns honking
When you look at this picture it appears to be real. That is why most
people cannot understand that the picture they see is produced in their
brain, and mistakenly suppose that all of it is real. The picture has
been created so perfectly that it is impossible to understand that the
image that they perceive as real is not the original of the outside world,
but only a copied image which exists in the mind.
The elements which make a picture so convincing and impressive are distance,
depth, color, shade and light. These materials are used with such perfection
that they become a three-dimensional, colorful and vivid image inside
the brain. When an infinite amount of detail is added to the picture a
whole new world emerges that, without realization, we assume is real for
all life, although we only interpret it in our mind.
Imagine now that you are driving a car. The steering wheel is at arms
length from you and there is a set of traffic lights about 100 m (or 300
ft) in front of you. The car in front of you is about 10 m (30 ft) away,
while there are mountains on the horizon, which, according to your estimation,
would be many kilometers (miles) away in the distance. However, all of
these estimations are wrong. Neither the car nor the mountains are as
far away as you would assume. In fact, the entire picture, as on a movie
reel, exists on a two dimensional frame, on only one surface within the
brain. The images reflected to the eye are two-dimensional, like those
on a TV screen. In such circumstances, how can a perception of depth and
What is referred to as a sense of distance is a way of seeing three-dimensionally.
The elements causing the effects of distance and depth in images are perspective,
shade and motion. The form of perception called spatial perception by
optical science is provided by highly complicated systems. This system
can be explained simply in this way: The sight which reaches the eye is
two dimensional. That is to say, it has measures of height and width.
The senses of depth and distance result from the fact that two eyes see
two different images at the same time. The image that reaches each of
our eyes differs from the other in terms of the angle and light. The brain
assembles these two different images to form our sense of depth and distance.
We can perform an experiment to understand this better. First, extend
your right arm in front of you and hold up your index finger. Now focus
on this finger while closing your left eye first and then your right eye.
Because two different visions come to each eye, you will see the finger
move slightly to one side. Now open both of your eyes and while continuing
to focus on your right index finger, move your left index finger as close
to your eye as you can. You will notice that the closest finger will have
created two images. This is because now a different depth has formed in
the closer finger from that in the farther finger. If you open and close
your eyes one by one, you will see that the finger located nearer your
eye will appear to move more than the finger which is further away. This
is due to the increasing difference in the views appearing in each eye.
While a three dimensional film is being made, this technique is used;
Images shot from two different angles are placed on the same screen. The
audience wears special glasses which have a color filter and polarize
the light. The filters in the glasses filter out one of the two views,
and the brain transforms these into one single three-dimensional image.
In this picture, the line in
the back appears twice the size of the line at the front.
However, in reality both of the lines are the same size. As
we can see from this example, the use of lines, perspective,
the light and shadow cause people to observe the same objects
differently. In fact, all of these objects are viewed in a
single place, in the visual center of the brain.
The perception of depth in a retina with two dimensions
is very similar to the technique used by artists to give the observer
a feeling of depth in a picture with two dimensions.There are certain
factors resulting in the feeling of depth, such as the placement of objects
on top of one another, the atmosphere perspective, changes in texture,
linear perspective, the dimensions, the height and the movement. For example
the change of texture is very important in perceiving depth. For example,
the ground that we walk on in a farm full of flowers is actually a tissue.
The tissues closer to us are more detailed while the tissues further from
us seem pale and harder to discern. Therefore, it is easier to estimate
the distance of objects located on a tissue. Besides this, effects of
shadow and light also contribute to the perception of a three-dimensional
One of the significant elements which provides the feeling
of depth is tissue differentiation. Tissues closer to us can
be observed in detail while those further away appear less
clearly. For example as we can observe from the picture on
the side, a three dimensional tissue has been created on a
paper with the feeling of depth, and which seems to be embossed
due to the use of color, shadow and light. Even though all
the dots are white in the above picture, they appear to be
flashing in both black and white.
The reason we admire a picture made by a successful artist is the sense
of depth and reality which are given to the picture, which is created
by using the elements of shade and perspective.
Perspective results from the fact that distant objects appear smaller
in proportion to those which are nearer, depending on the person who is
looking at it. For example, when we look at a view, distant trees appear
small, while those nearby appear large. Likewise, in a picture with a
mountain in the background, the mountain is drawn smaller than the person
in the foreground. In linear perspective, artists use parallel lines.
For example, train tracks produce an effect of distance and depth by meeting
with the horizon.
The method that painters use in their paintings is also valid for the
image that occurs in the brain. Depth, light and shade are produced by
the same method in two dimensional space in the brain. The greater the
amount of detail in the picture, the more realistic it appears and the
more it deceives our senses. We behave as if there was real depth and
distance, as if there was a third dimension. However, all pictures are
like a film square on a flat surface. The
visual cortex in the brain is as small as a credit card! The distances,
the images such as those of distant houses, stars in the sky, the moon,
the sun, airplanes flying in the air, and birds - they are all crammed
into this small space. That is to say, there is technically no distance
between a glass that you can hold by extending your hand and an airplane
that, if you looked up, you would understand to be thousands of kilometers
above; all of them are on the single surface, that is, in the sense center
of the brain.
For example, a disappearing ship on the horizon is not actually miles
away from you. The ship is in your
brain. The window sill that you are looking at, a poplar tree in front
of the window, the road in front of your house, the sea and the ship on
the sea are all in the sight center of the brain, on a two dimensional
surface. Just like a painter can represent the feeling of distance on
a two dimensional canvas by using the proportions of size, elements of
color, shade and light and perspective, so can the sense of distance also
occur in the brain. In conclusion, the fact that we sense objects to be
far away or nearby should not fool us, as distance is a sensation like
all the others.
Are You In The Room, Or Is The Room Inside You?
Just as everything we see in our environment
is an image formed in our brain, so is our own body an image
in the brain.
One of the reasons that prevent people from understanding that the images
seen are actually sensed in the brain, is that people see their body in
the image. They come to this wrong conclusion that "since I am in this
room, the room does not occur in my brain." Their mistake is to forget
that their body is an image too. Just like everything we see around us
is an image which exists in the brain, so does our body also exist as
an image in the brain. For example, while sitting on an armchair, you
can see the rest of your body below your neck. This image too is produced
by the same perceptual system. When you put your hand on your leg, you
sense a kinesthetic feeling in the brain. This means that you see your
body in the brain, and you feel yourself touching your body in the brain.
If the body is an image in the brain, is the room inside of you or are
you in the room? The obvious answer to this is "the room is inside of
you". And you see the image of your body inside the room, which in turn
is in the brain.
Let us explain this with an example. Let us suppose that you call a lift.
When it comes, your neighbor, who lives upstairs from you, is in it. You
get into the lift. In reality, are you in the lift or is it in you? The
truth is: the lift with the images of the neighbor and your body all occurs
in your brain.
In conclusion, we are not "inside" anything. Everything is inside us;
everything occurs in the brain. The sun, the moon, stars or an airplane
flying in the sky many miles away cannot change this truth. The sun and
the moon, like the book that you hold are only images which occur in a
very small sight center in the brain.
Since your body is an image seen in your
brain, the question is this: are you inside the room that
you are in, or is the room inside you? The answer is clear:
Of course, the room is inside you, in the vision center of
The World Of Senses Can Occur Without Outside World's
One factor which invalidates the claim that the world of senses that
we see has a material equivalent is that we do not need an outside world
for senses to occur in the brain. Many technological developments such
as simulators and also dreams are the most important evidences of this
Science writer, Rita Carter, states in her book, Mapping
The Mind, that "there's no need for eyes to see" and describes at
length an experiment carried out by scientists. In the experiment, blind
patients were fitted with a device that transformed video pictures into
vibrating pulses. A camera mounted next to the subjects' eyes spread the
pulses over their backs so they had continuous sensory input from the
visual world. The patients started to behave as if they could really see,
after a while. For example, there was a zoom lens in one of the devices
so as to move closer the image. When the zoom is operated without informing
the patient beforehand, the patient had an urge to protect himself with
two arms because the image on the subject's back expanded suddenly as
though the world was looming in.15
In an experiment, blind people were made
to see some visions by a device. Through the device, these
blind people could see some very realistic visions not belonging
to the outside world but produced artificially. They were
under the impression that something was coming towards them,
so they stepped back to protect themselves.
As it is seen from this experiment, we can form sensations even when
they are not caused by material equivalents in the outside world. All
stimuli can be created artificially.