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Harun Yahya - Justice and Tolerance in the Qur'an
Justice and Tolerance in the Qur'an
   

"If you do judge, judge between them justly. God loves the just."
(Our'an: 5:42)



Peace in Societies Where True Justice Prevails

In the previous sections, we mentioned the type of justice referred to in the Qur'an, the attitude of Muslims towards the People of the Book and the tolerant and just administration of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Looking at history, we see that the true justice established during the time of the prophets continued to exist under the rule of leaders who exercised justice. After the period of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), too, just administrators who strictly adhered to the teachings of the Qur'an and followed in the footsteps of the messengers managed to establish societies marked by peace. The true justice described in the Qur'an, righteousness and honesty also prevailed in the time of these administrators, making their reigns an example to follow for their successors.

After embracing Islam, Turkish people, too, made up societies that are documented as having had just, tolerant and honest administrations. As we shall see, this fact is confirmed by many Western historians. Furthermore, this fact was also sincerely expressed by researchers who were members of communities that lived under Turkish rule for centuries. The Great Seljuk and Ottoman empires, the two great Turkish examples of their kind, spring to mind in this context. Numerous peoples who lived under their rule enjoyed the maintenance of social justice and lived in peace.

 

Khans of the Great Seljuk Empire who Administered Justice

With the conversion of the Turks to Islam, khans (a title given to the supreme rulers of Turkish tribes and Ottoman sultans) and sultans ruled in the light of the Islamic teachings. The spread of Islam witnessed praiseworthy accomplishments, great conquests and many other important contributions during the reign of these leaders, thanks to the guidance of justice described in the Qur'an. In his book, The Spread of Islam in the World, Sir Thomas Arnold, a British researcher, explains the willingness of Christians to come under Seljuk rule in these terms:

This same sense of security of religious life under Muslim rule led many of the Christians of Asia Minor, also, about the same time, to welcome the advent of the Saljuq Turks as their deliverers… In the reign of Michael VIII (1261-1282), the Turks were often invited to take possession of the smaller towns in the interior of Asia Minor by the inhabitants, that they might escape from the tyranny of the empire; and both rich and poor often emigrated into Turkish dominions.17

Malik Shah, the ruler of the Islamic Seljuk Empire during its brightest age, was very careful to apply the judgements of the Qur'an. He approached the people in the conquered lands with great tolerance and compassion, and was thus remembered by them with respect. The Armenian historian Mateos of Urfa describes the Great Seljuk Empire as follows:

The reign of Malik Shah was blessed by God. His sovereignty extended to the remotest countries and gave peace to Armenians. His heart was full of compassion for Christians. He treated the people of the lands he passed through like a father. Many towns and provinces came under his control of their own free will; all Roman and Armenian towns recognised his laws.18

All objective historians refer to the justice and tolerance of Malik Shah in their works. His tolerance also kindled feelings of love towards him in the hearts of the People of the Book. For this reason, unprecedented in history, many cities came under Malik Shah's rule of their own free will. Sir Thomas Arnold also mentions Odo de Diogilo, a monk of St. Denis, who participated in the Second Crusade as the private chaplain of Louis VII and refers in his memoirs to the justice administered by Muslims, regardless of the religious affiliation of the subjects. Based on the graphic account of Odo de Diogilo, Sir Thomas Arnold writes:

The situation of the survivors would have been utterly hopeless, had not the sight of their misery melted the hearts of the Muhammadans to pity. They tended the sick and relieved the poor and starving with open-handed liberality. Some even bought up the French money which the Greeks had got out of the pilgrims by force or cunning, and lavishly distributed it among the needy. So great was the contrast between the kind treatment the pilgrims received from the unbelievers and the cruelty of their fellow-Christians, the Greeks, who imposed forced labour upon them, beat them, and robbed them of what little they had left, that many of them voluntarily embraced the faith of their deliverers.19

Odo de Diogilo, narrating the events experienced during the Second Crusade, relates the efficacy of the tolerant, compassionate and just attitudes of Muslims:

Avoiding their co-religionists who had been so cruel to them, they went in safety among the infidels who had compassion upon them, and, as we heard, more than three thousand joined themselves to the Turks when they retired… … though it is certain that contented with the services they performed, they compelled no one among them to renounce his religion.20

These statements by historians reveal that the morality of the Qur'an commands the establishment of justice in warfare and other difficult times. This superior morality displayed by the Muslim Turks-at a time when the world was ruled by tyrants-is an indication of their commitment to the Qur'an and their superior character. For this reason, no matter how prejudicial a nation or a community may be towards Islam, their hearts will soften when they witness this good morality of Muslims, just like in the case of Crusaders.

 

The Ottoman Empire Brought Justice to the Conquered Lands

In societies in which people complied with the commands of the Qur'an, social life was marked by peace and tranquillity, which is a phenomenon that is also confirmed by the historical facts. One of these just administrations was the Ottoman Empire, which was originally a small state that spread rapidly, superseding the Byzantine Empire and which eventually came over a vast swath of land including southwest Asia, northeast Africa, and southeast Europe. Today, we still come across traces of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, the Middle East and North Africa. Everywhere in the Ottoman Empire was ruled by Muslim administrators who displayed the noble traits of people who adhered to Islamic tenets. One can understand the influence of the Ottomans from the quotation below, taken from the ten-volume work, Histoire de la Turquie, (1854) by Lamartine:

Visit Izmir, Istanbul, Syria or Lebanon. Go to monasteries, holy places, and educational institutions there. Look at the places where religious education is provided and ask people "Was there anything wrong with the attitude of the Ottomans to you, or the protection they provided?" All of them will tell you about "the impartial treatment of the Ottomans and the Sultan"… Indeed, in the administration of these religious places, the Ottoman sultans acted with a profound sense of objectivity, respect and peace…21

Starting from the time of Osman Ghazi (a title given to a victorious Muslim military leader), the founder of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, and other emperors became role models for all humanity to follow with their elevated manner and the justice they displayed in their administrations. Under their authority, people of different religions and creeds co-existed in peace. Furthermore, there existed some communities which did not resist at all and of their own free will submitted to the rule of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. This alone bespeaks the great satisfaction people derived from his fair treatment.

As is the case with all Islamic states, the Ottoman sultans treated the non-Muslims in the conquered lands with the utmost justice.22 That is because according to the Qur'an, the people of the conquered lands were God's trusts to the sultans. The protection of these people and keeping them safe from the cruelty of others were the responsibilities of administrators who ruled with justice. That is why, while European kingdoms subjected native peoples to genocide and cruelty, and exploited all the natural resources in the countries they occupied, the Ottoman sultans made it their main goal to bring welfare to the conquered lands. They never resorted to coercion to convert the natives. On the contrary, they provided them all the means to worship in peace.23

Muslim Turks never intervened in the language, religion and many of the social and administrative structures of the people living under their rule. In brief, the cultures of these people were kept intact. That is why people whose religions, languages and cultures were completely different could live together in peace and harmony under one roof. Regarding this subject, historian André Miquel states the following:

The Christian communities lived under a well administered state that they did not have during the Byzantine and Latin periods. They were never subjected to systematic persecution. On the contrary, the empire and especially Istanbul had become a refuge for Spanish Jews who were tortured. People were never Islamized by force; the movements of Islamization took place as a result of social processes.24

Turkish lands, which were then ruled in compliance with Islamic justice, provided great comfort for people of all religions. Non-Muslims living in Ottoman territories in Anatolia and Europe experienced no interruption in their social and religious lives.25 Thanks to the strict adherence of Ottoman sultans to the Qur'an, no distinction was made between people because of their race, language and ethnic origins, and people of different descent enjoyed social justice. In his book, The Ottoman History, historian İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı stresses that non-Muslim people considered the strong tolerance of the Turks as a salvation:

The respect of the Turks for the religious feelings of non-Muslim communities was the main cause why these people considered the Ottoman administration as a saviour.26

European historian Richard Peters expresses how Muslim Turks exercised exemplary justice in the countries they conquered:

For ages, Turks ruled many nations but never attempted to assimilate them. They granted them their freedom and allowed them to live by their religious principles and culture.27

All these examples evinced the Muslim Turks' unwillingness to exploit conquered lands. They respected the rights of all peoples under their rule. Both Seljuks and Ottomans took it upon themselves to protect every individual living within their territories. Thus it was that people of different nations and religions lived in peace without coming into conflict with one another. If the Ottoman leaders had not adopted a just attitude towards these people, they would certainly have failed to found such well-established empires and keep them intact for so long. However, we see that the elevated values and traits Islam endowed these administrators with helped them attain a high level of culture and civilisation.

 

Just Administration During the First Periods
of the Ottoman Empire

Right from the initial years of its development, the founders of the Ottoman Empire adopted the principle of administering justice. They administered the various communities and disbelievers under their rule with great fairness and never resorted to coercion to make them convert to Islam. The establishment of peace was always their main priority.

Osman Ghazi, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, established strong friendships with the non-Muslims living around his territory. These good relations ensured mutual trust. For example, before Osman Ghazi took his people to the high plateau in springtime, he entrusted his goods to the care of non-Muslims in Bilecik, and months later returned with gifts such as cheese, butter and carpets for them.28 The bazaar in Ilıca-Eskisehir, a province within the territories held by Osman Ghazi, attracted non-Muslims from the neighbouring regions because of its security.29 Warm social relations with non-Muslims permeated Osman Ghazi's time. One event the historian Joseph von Hammer relates in his book, Ottoman History, exalts Osman Ghazi's just administration for all people, no matter to which religion they belonged:

One day, non-Muslims from Bilecik brought a load of glasses to the bazaar. One Muslim bought glasses but did not pay for them. When the salesman complained, Osman Ghazi called the Muslim who had failed to pay, took the money from him and immediately gave it to the non-Muslim. Following that, Osman Ghazi used his town criers to order his people not to act unjustly towards the non-Muslims of Bilecik. Osman Ghazi's administration proved to be so fair that even non-Muslim women could come and shop in the bazaar in safety. Under the administration of Osman Ghazi, the non-Muslim community felt safe. When Osman Ghazi was asked the reason for his extreme sensitivity in doing justice to the non-Muslims of Bilecik, he answered: "They are our neighbours. When we first came to this land, they welcomed us. What becomes us now is to respect them."30

This virtuous conduct of Osman Ghazi is simply a manifestation of God's command:

Worship God and do not associate anything with Him. Be good to your parents and relatives and to orphans and the very poor, and to neighbours who are related to you and neighbours who are not related to you, and to companions and travellers and your slaves. God does not love anyone vain or boastful. (Qur'an, 4:36)

This behaviour in compliance with the Qur'anic injunctions caused many people to be reconciled to Islam. After the conquests of Yarhisar, İnegöl, Bilecik, Yenişehir (towns in Anatolia) and their surroundings, Osman Ghazi treated the native non-Muslims with justice and tolerance, and did not confiscate their lands. Indeed, Ottoman rule promoted public welfare and made these lands better places to live in a very short time. Furthermore, these safe lands even attracted other non-Muslim communities, which came and settled in the Ottoman lands.31 If Osman Ghazi had not ensured the establishment of that just, tolerant and secure environment which Islam demands, non-Muslims whose lands were conquered by Muslims might well have adopted a hostile manner. However, being a person of faith, who strictly observed God's commands, he administered justice. Osman Ghazi also attended wedding ceremonies of non-Muslims and gave them gifts, which are acts that attest to his tolerance of and respect for non-Muslims.32

In his book, The Ottoman History, Joseph von Hammer relates another example of Osman Ghazi's justice:

On a Friday, a Muslim, who was a subject of the Germiyan Turk ruler Alishir quarrelled with a Christian who was under the command of a Roman commander of Bilecik. Osman judged between them and found the Christian innocent. Then, throughout the country, everyone started to talk about Osman's justice and honesty.33

It is further related that just before his death, Osman Ghazi instructed his son Orhan to protect all his subjects equitably and to please those who obeyed him.34 The reputation of Osman's justice extended even to remote lands. For this reason, Orhan Ghazi did not have to fight to capture Bursa (a town in Anatolia). The commander of the town surrendered the castle to Orhan Ghazi of his own free will. Then Orhan Ghazi asked Saroz, the commander in Bursa, why he had surrendered the castle. Saroz replied that those who obeyed Orhan Ghazi enjoyed peace, and that was what his people also longed for.35 The answer of the Romans in Bursa to the same question also reflects the very same sincere feelings:

We see that your state is growing stronger each day, surpassing ours; we see that those peasants who came under your father's rule are happy and no longer remember us. This being the case, we also desired to attain such well-being.36

A letter written by the Archbishop of Thessaloniki, Gregory Palamas, who was captured by the Ottomans in 1355, explicitly reveals the tolerance displayed by Orhan Ghazi and his officials towards Christians. In his letter, Palamas stated that Christians enjoyed complete freedom in Ottoman lands, that Solomon Pasha, the son of Orhan Ghazi, asked him questions about Christianity and that Sultan Orhan himself had a discussion with him, as well as Muslim theologians and scholars.37

Orhan Ghazi's tolerant and just administration was not limited to Christian communities. Jewish communities also benefited from the justice stemming from the noble spirit of Islam that manifested itself in Orhan Ghazi's administration. Having lost everything they held dear under the rule of other states, Jews in Edirne and other Thrace towns received the Ottoman conquest with pleasure.38

The Ottoman Emperor's favourable attitude to Jews also continued during the time of Murad I. Byzantine historian Chalcondylas described Sultan Murad's just and tolerant administration as follows:

Regardless of their religion, the people who obeyed and served him received generous and kind treatment. He was tough on those who were hostile. None of his enemies succeeded in escaping him. He earned the trust of everyone, be he a friend or an enemy, because he kept his promises, even if they later turned out to be against his interests.39

Gibbon, the British historian, described Sultan Murad's tolerance towards Christians by writing that he treated Orthodox people much better than Catholics treated Orthodox people.40

All these examples reveal why the Ottoman Empire gained great power so rapidly during its early years. The just attitudes of the rulers had very positive effects on people of different religions, and the Ottomans extended their borders to far-off continents. The most important reason why this expansion continued during the reigns of other sultans is this same tolerant and just attitude. The tolerant and just environment established in the time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror is an established fact accepted by all historians.

 

True Justice was Established at the Time of
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror

The conquests during the time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror extended the borders of the empire to three continents, and the conquest of Istanbul marked the beginning of a new age. This conquest was a milestone in European history as well as Ottoman. Sultan Mehmed also practiced the justice and tolerance of Islam on the people of the lands he conquered.

Sultan Mehmed's tolerance towards the People of the Book is documented by the agreements he made. His tolerant administration stemmed from Islamic tenets and included everyone: Jews, Armenians and Syrian Orthodox communities.41 That is why during his reign, many nations were pleased to be under his rule. A statement by the Grand Duke Lucas Notaras, the Byzantine commander, "I would rather see the Muslim turban in the midst of the city than the Latin mitre"42 confirms that fact.

The conquest of Istanbul by Sultan Mehmed was initially a cause of great fear among non-Muslims. The majority of these feared they would suffer discrimination, oppression and attacks, and so fled from Istanbul or congregated in St. Sophia Church. However, Sultan Mehmed, who treated them with justice and tolerance, relieved them of all their fears and allowed them to return to their homes and go on with their daily lives.43 He allowed non-Muslims to live according to their own religions and their own rules, and furthermore, brought in conditions under which people of different creeds could carry out their religious obligations without hindrance.44 In the palace, Muslim and Christian scholars lived side by side and discussed issues in an atmosphere of tolerance.

Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror tried to learn about Christianity from a Christian,45 and granted the Patriarch an imperial edict entitling the Christian community to administer their own law in the conduct of their daily lives. Sultan Mehmed gave the Patriarchate enormous freedom, and thus the Patriarchate received autonomy under Turkish rule.46 The historian Hammer published a copy of the imperial edict (modus vivendi) compiled from Western and Eastern sources. Hammer quotes the following in the acquittal sent to the Patriarch by the Sultan:

No one will oppress the patriarch: no one will ever bother him, regardless of his identity. The patriarch and the great priests in his service will be excused from all forms of services for an indefinite period of time.47

Right after the conquest, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror set about dealing with the judicial rights of minorities, appointed Gennadius as the Greek-Orthodox Patriarch and signed an agreement with them. Another agreement he made with the People of the Book living in Galata (a district of Istanbul), confirmed that the churches in Galata would not be confiscated or turned into mosques, and that the People of the Book would not be forced to convert to Islam.48 Another agreement made in the same period entitled the spiritual leaders known as "metropolitans" to carry out their services as usual.49

Apart from the rights of Christians, Sultan Mehmed also paid attention to the rights of Jews. They were also granted the right to have their own synagogues and rabbis and to carry out their religious services freely. Sultan Mehmed invited Rabbi Moses Kapsali to the palace, the first rabbi of the Ottoman period, complimented him and granted him an imperial edict to judge cases involving Jews.50

These developments that occurred following the conquest of Istanbul by Sultan Mehmed also characterised the reigns of the succeeding Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman army extended its borders as far as Vienna. They conquered the Balkans entirely. Serbia, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Wallachia and Moldavia passed to the Ottoman Empire and Hungary was taken under its protection. Ottoman influence was also felt in lands bordering on the sea. The Black Sea became a Turkish lake. Many Aegean islands such as the Mora Peninsula, Rhodes, Crete and Chios, the Caucasus, and places such as Baghdad, Tabriz, the Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, Jerusalem, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, eastern Anatolia, the Spice Road, Poland and many other regions were included within the territories of the Ottoman Empire. People of different religions lived in these conquered lands in peace. Nobody was oppressed because of his religion, language or race.

A model in which such justice and tolerance prevails is what is most desired in our world today. The only way to attain such a society is to live by the values of the Qur'an. As the examples above confirm, the leaders who adopted the Qur'anic injunctions and the societies they led attained great prosperity. Since the values of the Qur'an were adopted by everyone, from all walks of society, justice, compassion, tolerance, love, mercy and honesty pervaded the whole of society and brought peace and harmony to social life.

There is no reason why such a society cannot be established again. The only prerequisite for such a society is a sincere intention to live by the values of the Qur'an and to make serious efforts to spread these values to the whole of society.

 
 
    


17 Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, Goodword Books, 2001, p. 96.
18 Osman Turan, Türk Dünya Nizamının Milli, İslami ve İnsani Esasları (National, Islamic and Humane Fundamentals of the Turkish World Order), Vol. 2, p. 138.
19 Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, Goodword Books, 2001, pp. 88-89.
20 Prof. Thomas Arnold, The Spread of Islam in the World, A History of Peaceful Preaching, Goodword Books, 2001, p.89.
21 Alphonse de Lamartine, Histoire de la Turquie, Paris : Librairie du Constitutionnel, 1854, p. 154
22 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.
23 Prof. Dr. Nejat Göyünç, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Hakkında Bazı Düşünceler (Some Thoughts on the Ottoman Empire), Ayyıldız Matbaası, Ankara, 1973, p. 29
24 André Miquel, L'Islam et Sa Civilisation VIIe - XXe siècle, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris 1968, p. 244.
25 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 24.
26 İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Tarihi (Ottoman History), volume 1, 4. Edition, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Ankara-1982, p. 183
27 Richard Peters, Die Geschichte der Türken, W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1961, p. 8
28 M. Altay Köymen, Nesri Tarihi (Nesri History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 525, Ankara, 1983, p. 45; A. Nihat Atsız, Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi (Asikpasaoglu History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 604, Ankara, 1985, p. 22

29 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 24.
30 Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall , Histoire de l'empire Ottoman, J. J. Hellert, Paris, 1836, p. 58
31 Nihat Atsız, Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi (Asikpasaoglu History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 604, Ankara, 1985, p. 27
32 M. Altay Köymen, Nesri Tarihi (Nesri History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 525, Ankara, 1983, pp. 51-52; A. Nihat Atsız, Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi (Asikpasaoglu History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 604, Ankara, 1985, pp. 24-25
33 Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall , Histoire de l'empire Ottoman, J. J. Hellert, Paris, 1836, p. 5
34 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.
35 M. Altay Köymen, Nesri Tarihi (Nesri History), Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları no. 525, Ankara, 1983, p. 68
36 Osman Turan, Türk Dünya Nizamının Milli, İslami ve İnsani Esasları (National, Islamic and Humane Fundamentals of the Turkish World Order), Vol. 2, p. 187.
37 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.
38 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 26.
39 Yılmaz Öztuna, Osmanlı Devleti Tarihi-1 (History of the Ottoman State), "Siyasi Tarih", Ankara:T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları/2068, 1998, Vol. 1, p. 77; Chalcondylas, Paris tab'i, p. 29
40 Yılmaz Öztuna, Osmanlı Devleti Tarihi-1 (History of the Ottoman State), Vol. 1, p. 77, (Oxford 1916, p. 52)
41 Sadi Bilgiç, Sızıntı Dergisi (Sızıntı Magazine), December 1997, no. 227, p. 512
42 Karl E. Meyer, The New York Times, March 30, 1997.
43 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 29-30.
44 Cumhuriyet Gazetesi (Cumhuriyet Newspaper), Fatih ve Fetih 4 (Conqueror and Conquest 4), Erdoğan Aydın, 31 May 2000, p. 9.
45 Cumhuriyet Gazetesi (Cumhuriyet Newspaper), Fatih ve Fetih 4 (Conqueror and Conquest 4), Erdoğan Aydın, 31 May 2000, p. 9.
46 Osman Turan, Türk Dünya Nizamının Milli, İslami ve İnsani Esasları (National, Islamic and Humane Fundamentals of the Turkish World Order), Vol. 2, p. 190.
47 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 28.
48 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 29.
49 Osmanlı Hukukuna Giriş ve Fatih Devri Kanunnameleri (Introduction to the Ottoman Law and Code of Laws in the Period of Fatih), Fey Vakfı Yayınları, 1990, p.406
50 Prof. Dr. Bilal Eryılmaz, Osmanlı Devletinde Gayrimüslim Tebaanın Yönetimi (Administration of the Non-Muslims Subjects in the Ottoman State), Risale Basın-Yayın LTD. March, 1996, p. 31.