Many different theories have been posited
to explain the universe's creation. Some people, who disregarded the scientific
evidence about the beginnings of the universe, suggested that matter has
always existed. One hypothesis put forward to support this view is the
"Steady-state Hypothesis." Comprehensive and long research has
revealed strong evidence that the universe has a beginning. The Steady-state
hypothesis, on the other hand, has become a distant memory in the history
Data shows that the universe came into being from nothing. Accordingly,
the universe has an explosive beginning: the "Big Bang." Before
that, there was nothing: no matter, energy, space, time, or a universe.
As a consequence of an explosion of an infinitely dense, zero volume
point, matter was blasted out at an incredible speed in all directions,
forming stars, planets and other heavenly bodies. The universe expanded,
inflated, grew rapidly, and, over time, cooled and assumed its present
At the present time, most books on cosmology, science journals, and articles
on the subject, as well as supporting evidence, assert that the universe
began with a Big Bang and therefore has a certain age. As it is impossible
to squeeze all of this written material into a few lines, we will provide
one or two examples.
Professor George O. Abell (University of California) states that although
the steady-state universe appeals to materialists, it has to be abandoned
in the face of new evidence:
The steady-state universe is infinite
and eternal and has much philosophical appeal. But we have already seen
that certain objects, especially quasars, change as the universe ages,
which violates the perfect cosmological principle. Moreover, we shall
see subsequently that there is direct evidence that the universe has
evolved from a hot, dense state, strongly supporting the idea of a big
When American scientists
announced the discovery of radiation patterns in space that may mark the
beginning of time itself, astrophysicist George Smoot, leader of the research
team said: "What we have found is evidence for the birth of the
universe—It's like looking at God. The order is so beautiful and
the symmetry so beautiful that you think there is some design behind it."4
Somewhere else, he added: "It is a mystical experience, like
a religious experience. It really is like finding the driving mechanism
for the universe."5
Given that the universe has a beginning, it has to have been made from
nothing. In other words, it was created. If there was a creation, there
has to be a creator. This universe was created without a preceding model
and even before time and space existed. The most crucial fact discovered
by this theory is that the universe has a beginning and an absolute and
all-powerful creator. Allah created the universe!
The Big Bang is the first movement that we can calculate in the universe.
Every single move and event since that moment has happened by Allah's
will and under His control. It is unacceptable as well as irrational to
assume that matter dispersed by an unconscious explosion could form, by
itself, such a galactic order, star systems, and the solar system to which
our planet belongs. Everything that can be observed in the environment,
including one's own body, has been created in an infinite order within
Allah's control and knowledge. The Qur'an reveals that He first created
the heavens, then Earth, and finally living beings.
Allah created the universe with a very delicate balance and order. Countless
factors are interlinked with one another, from the proportion of the atmosphere's
different gases to Earth's surface temperature, from the speed of rainfall
to the iron content of Earth's core. The force of gravity, which keeps
all of the stars and planets in their respective orbits, is another example
of this. All matter in the universe is subject to gravitational forces,
according to its size. Earth's gravitational force holds the oceans and
everything else, including living beings, firmly on Earth's surface. This
way, people and other creatures, as well as oceans and mountains, do not
fall into the void of space. Earth's mass is of crucial importance here:
If its mass had been slightly larger, it would have exerted a greater
pull on everything on the planet's surface. Consequently, groundwater
would have receded, people would have been unable to walk, water could
not have reached the tree branch's leaves, vegetation would have disappeared,
and blood circulation would have become dysfunctional and concentrated
the blood in the feet. All of these and similar examples prove that Earth's
mass is adjusted in such a way to sustain its ecological systems and life
Scientists investigating the universe's eventual end believe that everything
is in the process of decaying, and that the universe's end will be a result
of this decay. They suggest that even one unstable proton could cause
this event, and warn of this great danger:
Cosmic entropy, if it is real, will
continue for centuries but when it happens, nothing will remain, no
stars, people, poems, atoms or memories…
After pointing out this fact, our attention is drawn to the real
Not one research project and not one experiment ever undertaken has
been able to prove the disappearance of a single proton. However, this
has not discouraged scientists from continuing to research in this field.
For scientists to witness a proton decay would mean that the universe
is face to face with the threat of annihilation. The obliteration of
even just one proton means that everything in the universe is decaying,
The decay of a single proton would demonstrate that all protons decay
and that therefore atoms, molecules, and DNA could not be formed.6
These few examples are enough to prove that the universe
was created by a superior power, who gave it a great order and balance.
Our all-powerful Lord protects and watches over this faultless order,
Allah keeps a firm hold on the heavens and Earth,
preventing them from vanishing away. And if they vanished, no one could
then keep hold of them. Certainly He is Most Forbearing, Ever-Forgiving.
(Surah Fatir, 41)
Allah reveals in the Qur'an that everything in the universe
will end. It is obvious that Allah, Who created and sustains this universe,
can destroy it whenever He wills. On this great Final Day, all existing
orders will cease, and everything that people admired, investigated and
incessantly tried to comprehend will be turned on its head, for:
His command when He desires a thing is just to
say to it, "Be!" and it is. Glory be to Him Who has the Dominion
of all things in His Hand. To Him you will be returned. (Surah Ya Sin,
THE UNIVERSE'S EVENTUAL DESTRUCTION
Our world is surrounded by deadly threats. Surprisingly,
even though we know of such dangers, many of us live as if no life-threatening
danger faces the universe and as if our lives were guaranteed. Many of
us do not reflect upon death or what comes after death.
Our world is on a long journey in an endless space. In reality, the factors
making this journey possible are more numerous than anticipated. Earth
faces many dangers on this journey: from comets to falling stars, from
black holes to supernova explosions. It must stay in its orbit around
the Sun, revolving at a constant speed on its axis, following a spiral
path at the required angle to the Sun, and maintain all of the prevailing
balances in its systems for life to be possible on it.
However, there is no reason why external dangers should not destroy these
balances. Scientists, who point out these dangers at every opportunity,
agree that Earth could face such dangers at any time. As Professor Carl
The earth is a lovely and more or less
placid place. Things change but slowly. We can lead a full life and
never personally encounter a natural disaster more violent than a storm.
And so we become complacent, relaxed, unconcerned. But in the history
of Nature, the record is clear. Worlds have been devastated. Even we
humans have achieved the dubious technical distinction of being able
to make our own disasters, both intentional and inadvertent. On the
landscapes of other planets where the records of the past have been
preserved, there is abundant evidence of major catastrophes. It is all
a matter of time scale. An event that would be unthinkable in a hundred
years may be inevitable in a hundred million. Even on Earth, even in
our own century, bizarre natural events have occurred.7
It would not be surprising to see the universe destroyed
by some of the things mentioned earlier. Maybe all of the things Allah
says will happen on the Day of Judgment will happen because Earth's equilibrium
will be damaged. No doubt, damaging the faultlessly functioning order
could cause many catastrophes, and maybe, the Last Day, which people consider
unlikely or far in the future, is just round the corner.
THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF EARTH'S DEATH
The countless factors that enable our world to continue
its existence must be present at the same time and in the same way as
they are. Many scientists are studying how to preserve these natural balances.
A small example: Scientists and environmentalists predict that it will
not be possible to reduce the economic and environmental damage caused
by the consumption of such fossil fuels as oil and coal.8
Experts in the field say that the following disaster scenarios will be
caused by the escalating consumption of fossil fuels in the very near
1. The deltas of the world's greatest rivers, like
the Ganges or the Nile, will be flooded and lost, and one-quarter of
Bangladesh's territory, together with all of China's deltas, will be
2. The Maldives and other islands and island states will be submerged.
3. Great areas of fertile countries (e.g., the US Midwest, Europe, and
Kazakhstan) will become deserts, and Turkey will resemble the Sahara.
4. The frozen landmasses of Siberia and Canada will partially defrost,
causing the destruction of pipelines, rail tracks, and buildings.
5. One-third of all forests will be destroyed. Due to this reduced amount
of vegetation, the lungs of our world, the proportion of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere will increase. This will fuel the global warming process
and lead to various epidemic health problems.
6. In tropical areas, typhoons, cyclones, and other natural disasters
will occur more often. Such currents as the Gulf Stream and El Niño
in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans will alter their courses and turn
the climatic conditions on land as well as the sea upside down.
7. In Texas and along Europe's Mediterranean coastline, such infectious
diseases as malaria will become epidemic.
8. One-quarter of all glaciers and permanent ice in the Alps and the
Himalayas will melt. The resulting waters will flood many coastline
towns, and many island states will be submerged. The estimated 100 million
people living in the affected areas will either die or become homeless
All of the above dangers have been predicted by scientific
research. Once Earth begins this process, only Allah will be able to stop
it. The 25 percent increase in carbon dioxide in 1997 alone increased
the greenhouse effect, which caused the following events: parts of polar
glaciers melted, icebergs melted and raised the oceans' water levels,
colder winters than usual, extreme rainfall, and devastating hurricanes
and floods. The hole in the ozone layer exposed Earth to harmful radiation
from space, increased cancer rates, caused new illnesses to be identified
and diagnosed, and revealed degenerative developments in plant life. American
scientists and Greenpeace activists discovered during their research in
Alaska that the Bering Glacier has shrunk by 12 kms (7.5
miles) in length and 130 m2 (155 square yards) in size.10
The ocean's water temperature increased by 0.8 degrees; corals, which
play a vital role in the ecosystem's balance, began to die; and 80 percent
of the plankton was destroyed.11
Over the last few centuries, many new probable causes for the world's
end have emerged, and their number continues to increase every day. Our
planet's current situation contains a strong message: Earth's end is a
certainty, and its time is approaching. Physicists, in particular, frequently
express their concerns about this, as follows:
If the universe has a finite stock of order,
and is changing irreversibly towards disorder—ultimately to thermodynamic
equilibrium—two very deep inferences follow immediately. The first
is that the universe will eventually die, wallowing, as it were, in
its own entropy. This is known among physicists as the "heat death"
of the universe. The second is that the universe cannot have existed
for ever, otherwise it would have reached its equilibrium end state
an infinite time ago. Conclusion: the universe did not always exist.12
It is surprising that so many people continue to live without considering
their own end and being in awe of Allah, and remain totally absorbed by
their worldly lives despite the proximity of death. And, it is even more
surprising that most people, when reminded of death and the ensuing hardships,
consider it a distant possibility. As they reject the Qur'an outright,
its descriptions of the Day of Judgment have no meaning for them. They
behave as if they will live forever, and so endanger the eternal life
for the sake of a temporary life. Death, which people try to avoid at
all costs, will find all of them, for neither humanity nor the universe
can avoid or prevent death. The Qur'an reveals this reality, as follows:
Say: "Death, from which you are fleeing,
will certainly catch up with you. Then you will be returned to the Knower
of the Unseen and the Visible, and He will inform you about what you did."
(Surat al-Jumu‘a, 8)
Given that Earth's destruction is a physical fact rather than a belief,
the factors that will contribute to its end reveal themselves in the light
of scientific discoveries. Even people who do not believe in Allah or
any other religion must acknowledge that the universe is approaching its
inevitable end. Hence, a new reality besides belief in the Day of Judgment
and the Hereafter emerges. This is a frightening reality, because it means
endless nothingness. The signs of the approaching Last Day leave people
with a number of options: Some unbelievers see it is an endless nothingness,
whereas believers see it is either eternal pleasure or eternal suffering…
THE END OF THE UNIVERSE:THE CLOSED UNIVERSE AND
OPEN UNIVERSE MODELS
Scientists agree that the Big Bang theory is irrefutable and wholly based
on scientific data. Accordingly, the universe was born out of the sudden
explosion of an infinitely dense point and its subsequent rapid expansion
and growth in space. Over time, it began to cool and assumed its current
So, for how long will this expansion continue? The greater an object's
mass, the greater its gravitational force—to the extent that the
gravitational force will overwhelm the rate of expansion. However, if
the gravitational force is smaller, expansion cannot be prevented. According
to scientists, if the universe's mass exceeds a certain limit, the expansion
will cease one day and the universe will collapse back in on itself. This
is the closed universe model. But if its mass is below this limit, the
gravitational forces will be unable to overcome expansion and so it will
continue to expand infinitely. This is the open universe model.
The universe will either close and end, or expand until it is exhausted
and then end, unless Allah causes it to end in another way. In order to
predict by which model the universe will die, we need to know its total
As determining this is very difficult, scientists have tried to measure
its density rather than its mass, because if the density reaches a critical
point, its gravity may overcome the expansion of galaxies. Thus, the universe
would begin to collapse by sucking in all of the galaxies. But if its
density does not reach this critical value, the expansion will continue
forever, because gravity cannot overcome the the galaxies' expansion.
Scientists setting out from this premise undertook to discover the end
of the universe. They conducted many experiments and spent endless hours
analyzing light from distant galaxies through telescopes.
The speed of galactic systems was measured; their size, intensity, and
distance were calculated; and the universe's real density was researched.
The emerging data confirms that the universe's present density is close
to critical density. In other words, it is more probable that the universe
is closed. Once the data obtained by the American scientists Edwin Loh
and Earl Spillar—research that is based on the study of thousands
of galaxies—was added to the existing data in 1986, the probability
of the universe being closed reached 90 percent.
Furthermore, several factors were disregarded while calculating
the universe's density, which led to the 90 percent figure. For instance,
black holes were not taken into account. If they had been, the density
value would have increased by a certain amount. Once the dark matters'
density—present in all galaxies—is added to the equation,
the emerging picture shows that the universe will cease to expand and
collapse within itself. Dr. John Gribbin, a well-known physicist and science
writer, also stated that the evidence for the closed universe model has
never been so strong.13
Phrasing it differently, the universe has reached a critical point and
is ready to implode at any time. Allah reveals that one day He will return
the universe to its original state, as follows:
That Day We will fold up Heaven like folding up
the pages of a book. As We originated the first creation so shall We bring
it back again. It is a promise binding on Us. That is what We will do.
(Surat al-Anbiya', 104)
It is highly probable that this verse indicates the closed universe
model. What we have related here shows that scientific data implies that
the universe is likely to implode. Moreover, the guardians of materialist
ideologies can posit no serious counterclaim in the face of such research
Dr. Scherman, dean of the University of Chicago's astronomy
department, says that whereas the closed universe idea used to be represented
chiefly by religion and philosophy, there is now much experimental as
well as theoretical evidence that proves its correctness.14
Our universe has been expanding for 15 billion years, but according to
the obtained results and at the time when Allah wills, gravity probably
will overcome expansion and bring it to a close. Once gravity becomes
the dominant force in a closed and extremely dense universe, everything
will begin to implode and be reversed, for all that had until then been
cooling and expanding will contract and heat up. As a result, all of the
galaxies will be rapidly brought closer to one another.
According this model, gravity will end the universe's expansion and cause
the galaxies to move toward one another at escalating speeds. Devastating
collisions will take place; huge stars will collide and fuse. The Moon,
the Sun, and Earth, as well as all other stars and planets, will fuse,
and at the end of this process the imploding universe will be concentrated
in one point and destroyed. The whole universe will be turned upside down.
Given that a small deviation in Earth's orbit would lead to either the
burning up or freezing to death of all living beings, that a small hole
in the atmosphere can have devastating effects, and that a change to the
23o 27' angle of Earth's axis would prevent the seasons, it
is not difficult to estimate the negative effect of the universe's contraction
on the precarious balances upon which its order rests.
Allah reveals that the Sun and the Moon will be fused together on the
Day of Judgment. Perhaps these verses indicate the closed universe model.
If contraction occurs, the world, our solar system's other planets and
stars, as well as the Sun and the Moon, will merge.
The Qur'an also reveals that the stars will fall
from their places in the heavens in rapid succession (Surat at-Takwir,
2). This verse could indicate a closed universe model, because in this
scenario the stars will leave their orbit and collide. In a contracting
universe, time will move backwards, and so there could be similarities
between the events taking place at that time on Earth and the events that
occur when entering a black hole. As with everything else, gravitational
forces will be reversed, Earth will disgorge its charges and be shaken,
the mountains will be pulverized, and the oceans will overflow. We do
not know how long this process will last, but these events will take place
as Allah describes them in the Qur'an.
We can summarize this as follows: If the closed universe model is true,
the universe will merge in one point and be extinguished by Allah.
However, this does not mean that the expanding universe
model will save the universe from destruction. If this scenario is true,
it simply means that the universe will be destroyed in another way. Ever
since it was created, the universe's density has continued to increase,
and its temperature nearly reached absolute zero. The presently prevailing
temperature in space is -270oC—only 3 degrees warmer
than absolute zero.15 As
long as the expansion continues, the universe's temperature will continue
to decrease. A temperature of -270oC is the most suitable for
life to exist.16 Even minor fluctuations
will doom all life to death. This temperature cannot remain constant in
an expanding universe. So, when it falls, humanity and all other living
parts of creation will die.
Confirmed findings of recent research suggest that the closed universe
model is applicable. Although uncertain of exactly which model it might
be, scientists agree that the fate of the universe will be the same: In
both models the universe dies, albeit in different ways. As we have explained
above, both models lead to the Last Day. However, there are other factors
that can bring about the universe's end, such as the Sun's completion
of its life cycle. Allah knows best.
THE SUN COMPLETES ITS LIFE-CYCLE
Stars are born, live for a certain period of time, and then die. Our Sun
has a limited lifetime. Before the universe meets its end, the Sun might
have completed its life cycle, which, in turn, means that Earth will have
to die as well.
The Sun is an estimated 5 billion years old. Every second,
it converts 564 million tons of hydrogen into 560 million tons of helium.17
The remaining 4 million tons of matter is converted into energy. When
it reaches the phase in which it will burn up and use up its hydrogen,
Earth's end will have come. At this stage, the abundant hydrogen in the
Sun's core will be replaced by helium, and the core's temperature will
increase from its present 20 million degrees to 100 million degrees Centigrade.
While the Sun's core overheats, its outer layers will expand and its color
will take on a red hue instead of its usual yellow. In this way, the Sun
will become a "red giant."
Scientists make the following predictions: The Sun, so vital for earthly
life, will bloat and expand in space; our solar system's planets will
catch fire; and those small planets near to it will be destroyed. Despite
the Sun's outer temperature remaining the same, nearby planets will be
greatly affected by its heat radiation, which is caused by its increased
volume. First Mercury and then Venus will burn up.
The continuation of life on Earth depends on the preservation
of the universe's many existing balances. For instance, if Earth were
to come a little closer to the Sun, all life on it would die. Thus, Earth
will be greatly affected by the expanding Sun way before its outer fringes
reach it. By the time Mercury and Venus are engulfed in flames, all of
Earth's natural conditions will have been destroyed and all life on it
will have been destroyed. In a very short time, the extreme heat will
evaporate the oceans and melt the rocks and mountains, which soon will
become gases. In a moment, the planet will burn up and become a handful
of ash scattered across the universe. Scientists reached this conclusion
after studying stars that have a similar size to our own Sun. Many distant
stars are becoming "red giants," which cause many extraordinary
events in the universe.18 When the giant
Sun uses up its fuel, it will no longer be able to support the weight
of its inner layers, and they will begin to collapse toward the core,
eventually producing a small, dense, cool star called a white dwarf. After
it becomes a white dwarf, it will cool slowly for billions of years, eventually
becoming so cool that it will no longer emit light.
Professor of Theoretical Physics and renowned science writer Paul Davies
expresses his concerns about the Sun's decreasing energy levels in the
As far as the sun is concerned, it clearly cannot
continue burning away merrily ad infinitum. Year by year its fuel reserves
decline, so that eventually it will cool and dim. By the same token
its fires must have been ignited only a finite time ago: it does not
have unlimited sources of energy.19
As a natural consequence of this process, the disaster issuing from
the Sun is unavoidable. In addition, research reveals many other factors
that could destroy Earth.
The universe contains millions of moving large and small meteors. The
consequences of a collision between these and a planet vary, according
to the mass of the meteor involved.
Scientists estimate that 1,000 tons to more than 10,000
tons of meteoritic material falls on the Earth each day. However, most
of this material is very tiny—in the form of micrometeoroids or
dust-like grains a few micrometers in size.20
And most of the rest is reduced to ash partly because of the friction
they encounter upon entering the atmosphere. In other words, Earth's atmosphere
protects us from possible catastrophes day after day. Somewhat distressingly,
however, some meteors are large enough to destroy all life on Earth. Scientists
have shown that meteor strikes in Earth's past have altered its geological
and ecological landscape significantly.
One meteorite, estimated to have a diameter of
60 kms (37 miles), exploded in the atmosphere above Tunguska in Siberia
in 1908 and destroyed some 2,000 km2 (770 square miles) of forest. Its
explosive force was 1,000 times more powerful than the atom bomb dropped
on Hiroshima. Fortunately, it exploded above a largely uninhabited area.
If it had exploded above the Eiffel tower, it probably would have killed
over 10 million people.21
This event brought home to people the great threat of catastrophic natural
disasters. This is how it happened:
In the early morning hours of June 30, 1908,
in Central Siberia, a giant fireball was seen moving rapidly across
the sky. Where it touched the horizon, an enormous explosion took place.
It leveled some 2,000 square kilometers [770 square miles] of forest
and burned thousands of trees in a flash fire near the impact site.
It produced an atmospheric shock wave that twice circled the Earth.
For two days afterward, there was so much fine dust in the atmosphere
that one could read a newspaper at night by scattered light in the streets
of London, 10,000 kilometers [6,200 miles] away.22
Eyewitnesses can give us clues about other potential disasters:
I was sitting on the porch of the house at the
trading station of Vanovara at breakfast time and looking towards the
north. I just raised my axe to hoop a cask, when suddenly... the sky
was split in two, and high above the forest the whole northern part
of the sky appeared to be covered with fire. At the moment I felt a
great heat, as if my shirt had caught fire... I wanted to pull off my
shirt and throw it away, but at that moment there was a bang in the
sky, and a mighty crash was heard. I was thrown on the ground about
three sajenes [about 7 meters or 23 feet] away from the porch and for
a moment I lost consciousness. My wife ran out and carried me into the
hut. The crash was followed by a noise like stones falling from the
sky, or guns firing. The Earth trembled, and when I lay on the ground
I covered my head, because I was afraid that stones might hit it. At
that moment when the sky opened, a hot wind, as from a cannon, blew
past the huts from the north. It left its mark on the ground...23
We do not know from where the next meteor might come or strike.
According to scientists, every 2 centuries a meteor the size of the Tunguska
one collides with Earth, a fact that illustrates the proximity of such
disasters. There is no reason why the next impact should not occur on
a densely populated area. At present, scientists are very concerned about
such an impact's potential consequences, for:
If such an impact occurred today it might be
mistaken, especially in the panic of the moment, for a nuclear explosion.
The cometary impact and fireball would simulate all effects of a one-megaton
nuclear burst, including the mushroom cloud, with two exceptions: there
would be no gamma radiation or radioactive fallout.24
The impact of such a massive object on a large city could kill millions
of people. If it fell in the ocean, it would still be devastatingly dangerous,
for its velocity and mass would create tidal waves that would destroy
the shoreline's populated areas. Furthermore, the likelihood of much larger
meteors colliding with Earth is highly probable and gives food for thought.
Scientists consider such an event inevitable, and say that it would be
able to destroy whole continents and fill the atmosphere with toxic gases.
They also readily admit that they are still fervently looking for a solution.
ASTEROIDS AND COMETS
Scientist state that the probability of a collision between
Earth and some of the known asteroids increases by the day. Duncan Smith,
reader in space technology at the University of Salford said scientists
had identified more than a thousand asteroids, of various dimensions,
that have orbits around the Sun that cross the path of the Earth. Scientists
say that big asteroids have hit Earth before and it is only a matter of
time before one strikes the Earth again.25
Each year, many fragments of debris hit our planet, but most of them are
so small that they burn up harmlessly in the atmosphere, unnoticed by
us. However, some of this material is larger than what the atmosphere
Geologist Walter Alvarez lists the probable events of a comet (shooting
star) entering Earth's atmosphere in his book T-Rex and the Crater of
Doom where he describes the world 65 million years ago:
Doom was coming out of the sky, in the form of
an enormous comet or asteroid—we are still not sure which it was.
Probably ten kilometers across, traveling tens of kilometers a second,
its energy of motion had the destructive capability of a hundred million
hydrogen bombs. If an asteroid, it was an inert, crater-scarred rock,
dark and sinister, invisible until the last moment before it struck.
If a comet, it was a ball of dirty ice, spewing out gases boiled off
by the heat of the Sun, and it announced impending doom with a shimmering
head and a brilliant tail splashed across half the sky, illuminating
the night, and finally visible even in the daytime as Armageddon approached.26
Scientists believe that a very large celestial body (most probably a
comet) collided with Earth 65 million years ago and marked it considerably.
Based on this experience and subsequent collisions, it is possible to
predict the events following such an impact and the probable consequences
for our planet.
The potential energy of a comet before impact is equivalent to 100 billion
megatons of TNT, which will cause it to evaporate in seconds and can leave
a crater 40 kms (25 miles) deep. In comparison, a hydrogen bomb has the
force of 1 megaton of TNT. At the height of the cold war, there were 10,000
such weapons. On the other hand, a comet's potential force is 10 million
times greater than the force of all of the explosives that existed at
The Qur'an reveals that on the Day of Judgment there will be shocking
tremors, that everything will be leveled, and that the oceans will boil
over. A collision with a comet or an asteroid could cause all of these
disasters. Massive seismic waves would disturb the ocean beds, causing
landslides and huge tidal waves. Scientists remark that previous tidal
waves caused in this way were of such a magnitude that they left their
marks on the ocean bed.
Recent research reveals that a large object that fell
into the Gulf of Mexico created large-scale tidal waves headed for Florida.
While traveling toward their destination, they grew even larger and endangered
the coast. They eventually destroyed large areas of forest. Although many
people live as if their death and the Day of Judgment will never come,
there is no reason why such a catastrophe should not occur. For instance,
one day before the above catastrophe occurred, the soil covering great
swathes of America and Mexico were fertile; soon after it struck, however,
all of it was rendered useless.27
Fourteen centuries ago, Allah revealed that on the Day of Judgment the
sky will split apart (Surat al-Haqqa, 16) and will be like molten brass
(Surat al-Ma‘arij, 8). This scenario resembles the effects of a
comet or a large meteor colliding with Earth.
Paul Davies, in his book The Last Three Minutes, says that a comet on
a collision course with Earth will emit such an intense light that the
atmosphere will begin to burn up from above and melt like metal. He also
states that the escaping gases in the vacuum of space will create a tornado.
These statements are quite similar to what the Qur'an says, as follows:
When Heaven is split apart and goes rose-red,
like dregs of oil. (Surat ar-Rahman, 37)
The melting and running of the heavens like molten brass or dregs of
oil is reminiscent of a hot, thick-flowing liquid. In such a case, the
skies would take on a red-hot color. As Davies states, on that Day the
superheated gases could form tornados, and the resemblance thereof to
a red rose is obvious.
Allah will bring the Day of Judgment at a predetermined time and fulfill
His promises. These events may take place one by one, or all at once.
Similar things have happened before, for both asteroids and comets have
caused localized and, at other times, widespread, damage. Only Allah knows
the time of the next one.
Scientists predict that an asteroid will come close to
Earth in 2028. According to them, if it falls into the Atlantic Ocean,
America and Europe will be submerged; if it falls onto land, it will be
far more destructive. Asteroids entering the atmosphere would cause earthquakes
and volcanic eruptions, the dust of which would veil Earth in darkness.
Astronomers point out that even the proximity of such a comet would pose
a great danger to Earth.28
Scientists refer to the Swift-Tuttle comet, which passed close by in 1993
and is expected to return in 2126. Calculations suggest a high probability
of a collision, as it is expected to pass by at 2 weeks' distance—a
close encounter indeed—and many scientists are genuinely concerned
and worried about such a near miss. The inconsistent orbits of these objects
create a continuous traffic, which means that Earth and other planets
are constantly at risk. According to experts, Swift-Tuttle or some other
object eventually will collide with Earth. Some of them could cause greater
devastation than all of humanity's nuclear weapons combined. We just do
not know when this will happen.
Davies says "when it does, it will be bad news for
people. There will be an abrupt and unprecedented interruption in the
history of our species." He says that a collision would almost certainly
spell the end for humanity.29 He deals
extensively with this subject in his book The Last Three Minutes, in which
he states that on the 21st of August 2126, Swift-Tuttle will strike Earth
and thereby usher in our planet's final day. There is a great similarity
between what he relates and what Allah reveals, as follows:
The date: August 21, 2126.
The place: Earth.
… The diminutive head of the comet belies its enormous destructive
power. It is closing on planet Earth at a staggering 40,000 miles per
hour, 10 miles every second—a trillion tons of ice and rock, destined
to strike at seventy times the speed of sound.
… Directly above ground zero, the sky splits open. A thousand
cubic miles of air are blasted aside. A finger of searing flame wider
than a city arcs groundward and fifteen seconds later lances the Earth.
The planet shudders with the force of ten thousand earthquakes. A shock
wave of displaced air sweeps over the surface of the globe, flattening
all structures, pulverizing everything in its path. The flat terrain
around the impact site rises in a ring of liquid mountains several miles
high, exposing the bowels of the Earth in a crater a hundred miles across.
The wall of molten rock ripples outward, tossing the landscape about
like a blanket flicked in slow motion...
Within the crater itself, trillions of tons of rock are vaporized. Much
more is splashed aloft, some of it flung out into space. Still more
is pitched across half a continent to rain down hundreds or even thousands
of miles away, wreaking massive destruction on all beneath. Some of
the molten ejecta falls into the ocean, raising huge tsunamis that add
to the spreading turmoil. A vast column of dusty debris fans out into
the atmosphere, blotting out the sun across the whole planet. Now the
sunlight is replaced by the sinister, flickering glare of a billion
meteors, roasting the ground below with their searing heat, as displaced
material plunges back from space into the atmosphere.30
No doubt, this description is not farfetched. Just one comet can cause
such damage, but we do not know when it will collide with Earth. Regardless
of how much people try to deny the existence of the Day of Judgment, it
can confront them as a possibility that is closer than they think, for
the Qur'an reveals that:
The Unseen of the heavens and Earth belongs to
Allah. The matter of the Hour is only the blink of an eye away, or even
nearer. Allah has power over all things. (Surat an-Nahl, 77)
At present, scientists believe that black holes of enormous mass exist
in the center of many galaxies. Their massive gravitational force swallows
its own radiation and everything else that comes within its vicinity,
an action that only further increases their size and gravitational force.
They can pull in stars many times their own size, planets, smaller black
holes, and even whole galaxies. As our planet travels rapidly in the endless
void of space, one day it might enter the gravitational zone of a black
Black holes are a most dense phenomenon that pulls in everything. Their
gravitational force is so strong that nothing in its path can escape it.
Just like a vacuum cleaner, black holes suck in everything in their gravitational
spectrum: planets, satellites, asteroids, and even stars. Once they enter
this field of gravity, they cannot escape.
Why do black holes suck in everything?
As we know, every object exerts a certain gravitational force. For example,
if we throw a stone into the sky, it will go up until it exhausts its
velocity and then falls to the ground by the force of gravity. For an
object to escape Earth's gravity, it needs to exceed a certain speed in
one direction (velocity). If a rocket is to break free of Earth's gravity,
it must reach a velocity that can overcome gravity: 11.2 kms (7 miles)
To escape a black hole, the object must travel faster than the speed of
light. However, since nothing can exceed the speed of light, nothing can
escape a black hole's gravity, not even bundles of light traveling at
a speed of 300,000 kms (190,000 miles) per second. Since not even light
can escape, black holes are always dark. There is no reason why our planet,
traveling at high speeds through space, should not enter a black hole's
gravitational field. In fact, scientists in America have disclosed the
existence of two active black holes in the center of our galaxy, each
of which can swallow up millions of stars larger than our Sun.
The American Astronomers Association recently published
a scientific report in which it says that one of the black holes is right
in the center of our galaxy, just 26,000 light years away from Earth (one
light year is almost 9.5 trillion kilometers, or nearly six trillion miles).
It is called "Sagittarius A" or "A-Star,"31
and is as large as our solar system but has a mass millions of times higher.
Based upon calculations, its mass is 2.6 billions times that of the Sun
and it sucks in stars at a speed of 965 kms (600 miles) per second. This
is no doubt a serious discovery and poses a great danger to our planet.
The other black hole, "Old Faithful," is spherical in shape,
is much larger, and is 40,000 light years away. It resembles an insatiable
monster that swallows up all stars within its reach.
The fact that A-Star swallows up the stars in its environment at a speed
of 965 kms (600 miles) per second shows that its gravitational force increases
with every star it swallows. Therefore, at the end of this process, the
escalating speed with which it draws objects to itself will reach an incredible
As black holes swallow up light, they cannot be seen or perceived even
by the most highly developed telescopes and other technology. Therefore,
scientists must determine their existence through research and measurement.
By using such tools, scientists have already proven the existence of several
black holes. However, there is a strong probability that many more have
not yet been discovered yet, as the current level of research is insufficient.
Many scientists believe that our Sun has a twin, which likely became a
black hole. The reasoning behind this assumption is that all other stars
in our solar system exist in groups of twos, threes, and fives, except
for our Sun. The supporting evidence is considerable and is being analyzed.
Considering that the Sun is only 150 million kms (93 million miles) away
from Earth, the potential danger is undeniable. In short, there is no
reason why Earth should not fall into a black hole's gravitational field
at any given moment.
Many scientists believe that a black hole will annihilate Earth by swallowing
it. Even if Earth avoids this end, there is a great danger of a black
hole's passing by our solar system. And, what would happen if a black
hole quietly approached our solar system? Such an event could alter the
orbits of many planets, which of course would affect Earth's balance.
Hundreds and even thousands of asteroids could be affected by such a gravitational
force. Many would be sucked in by the black hole, and hundreds or thousands
of them would fall on Earth.
There are an estimated 200 other galaxies besides our own in the universe,
each of which consists of 200 billion stars, revolves around its own axis,
and follows an orbit. Our galaxy is traveling at a high speed in the direction
of an imaginary point called the Solar Apex near the bright star Vega.
Due to all of this movement in the universe, collisions and huge explosions
occur. But because they happen millions of light years away, we do not
For instance, the Hubble telescope took pictures of two galaxies colliding
some 63 million light years away. As a result of this event, new stars
were born and massive hydrogen clouds were formed and released into space.
If such a collision were to take place near Earth, it could become one
of the factors that would destroy our planet.
Furthermore, scientists state that such an end probably awaits our solar
system. One such disclosure is the following:
Astrophysicists speak of serious problems the
Earth will have in the near future. The first of these is a supernova
explosion (a supernova: a star that explodes and becomes extremely luminous
in the process). Even if the time and location of this explosion is
unknown, predictions put forward are looking at the near future and
they are not very encouraging. According to scientists, the reddish
supergiant Betelgeuse star at a distance of 430 light years, appears
ready to explode. They reckon that hypernovas are created by the fusion
of black holes or by the merger of black holes with neutron stars. But
none of them knows how these time bombs are distributed in space or
what would happen to us if they were to come near our world.32
The Qur'an reveals that on that Day, Earth will be rocked by devastating
tremors; that people will experience pure terror; that the Sun, the Moon,
and stars will be extinguished; and that everything will be destroyed
rapidly. A collision could cause all of these events, and would affect
not only Earth but our entire solar system as well.
Scientific research reveals that the promised Day of Judgment will definitely
come, that all living and non-living things and Earth too will be destroyed,
and that Allah will create a new sky and a different world. All of this
is related to point out that Earth can also die by natural causes. However,
there is no doubt that Allah does not require a cause to do such things
and that if Allah wills it, he can make the Day of Judgment happen at
any time and even without the need for a collision or an explosion.
The probabilities we have examined here are only a few of the possible
ways for life to be destroyed. Moreover, scientific research confirms
that such an event is a realistic expectation.
The universe's continued expansion is another probable cause for Earth
to die. People are untouched by such concerns, because they see them as
very distant possibilities or simply prefer to let future generations
deal with them. However, there are even greater risks, and only Allah
knows which one will bring about the Day of Judgment. Regardless of how
remote a possibility seems to people, research and an increase in catastrophic
events suggests that such a day is approaching. And only Allah knows when
this will happen, for:
He created the heavens and Earth with truth. The
day He says "Be!" it is. His speech is Truth. The Kingdom will
be His on the Day the Trumpet is blown, the Knower of the Unseen and the
Visible. He is the All-Wise, the All-Aware. (Surat al-An‘am, 73)
ALLAH IS ALL-POWERFUL
For many years, people have wondered how the universe will end. Many possibilities
spring to mind, but Allah can make it happen without a cause and all of
a sudden. The probabilities revealed by scientific research constitute
a warning and give us the opportunity to reflect and turn to Allah before
that difficult Day comes in accordance with His will. The believers are
certain that the Day of Judgment will happen at the predetermined time
in His presence. All people will experience it, for they will be in the
All-Powerful's grip, as follows:
Or let you see what We have promised them. They
are completely in Our power. (Surat az-Zukhruf, 42)
Many events can cause Earth's existing order to collapse and all life
to be lost. Furthermore, as time progresses, even more probable causes
are added to the already existing ones. Many signs indicate that our world
is moving rapidly toward its predetermined end, even if most people deny
the existence of the Day of Judgment. The Qur'an points out this reality
in the following verse:
The Hour is coming, but I have concealed it so
that every self can be repaid for its efforts. (Surah Ta Ha, 15)
Scientists have reached a consensus, based on scientific data, that
the universe will be destroyed. Newspapers, magazines, television programs,
and other media outlets often inform people of the latest scientific discoveries.
Researchers who are aware of these facts are looking for ways to prevent
such calamities in order to delay the universe's death. Another area of
research focuses on the probable changes that would take place on Earth
and its effects on life were such a disaster to strike. The resulting
data bears a striking resemblance to many of the events foretold in the