MIRACLES OF THE QUR'AN
Fourteen centuries ago, Allah sent down the Qur'an to mankind as a book
of guidance. He called upon people to be guided to the truth by adhering
to this book. From the day of its revelation to the day of judgement,
this last divine book will remain the sole guide for humanity.
The matchless style of the Qur'an and the superior wisdom in it are definite
evidence that it is the word of Allah. In addition, the Qur'an has many
miraculous attributes proving that it is a revelation from Allah. One
of these attributes is the fact that a number of scientific truths that
we have only been able to uncover by the technology of the twentieth century
were stated in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.
Of course the Qur'an is not a book of science. However, many scientific
facts that are expressed in an extremely concise and profound manner in
its verses have only been discovered with the technology of the twentieth
century. These facts could not have been known at the time of the Qur'an's
revelation, and this is still more proof that the Qur'an is the word of
In order to understand the scientific miracle of the Qur'an, we must
first take a look at the level of science at the time when this holy book
In the seventh century, when the Qur'an was revealed, Arab society had
many superstitious and groundless beliefs where scientific issues were
concerned. Lacking the technology to examine the universe and nature,
these early Arabs believed in legends inherited from past generations.
They supposed, for example, that mountains supported the sky above. They
believed that the earth was flat and that there were high mountains at
its both ends. It was thought that these mountains were pillars that kept
the vault of heaven high above.
However all these superstitious beliefs of Arab society were eliminated
with the Qur'an. In Sura Sad, verse 2, it was said: "Allah
is He Who raised up the heavens without any support..."(Surah Sad, 2).
This verse invalidated the belief that the sky remains above because of
the mountains. In many other subjects, important facts were revealed at
a time when no one could have known them. The Qur'an, which was revealed
at a time when people knew very little about astronomy, physics, or biology,
contains key facts on a variety of subjects such as the creation of the
universe, the creation of the human being, the structure of the atmosphere,
and the delicate balances that make life on earth possible.
Now, let us look at some of these scientific miracles revealed in the
THE COMING OF THE UNIVERSE INTO EXISTENCE
The origin of the universe is described in the Qur'an in the following
He created the heavens and the earth from nothing. (Surat al-An'am, 101)
This information given in the Qur'an is in full agreement with the findings
of contemporary science. The conclusion that astrophysics has reached
today is that the entire universe, together with the dimensions of matter
and time, came into existence as a result of a great explosion that occurred
in no time. This event, known as "The Big Bang" proved that the universe
was created from nothingness as the result of the explosion of a single
point. Modern scientific circles are in agreement that the Big Bang is
the only rational and provable explanation of the beginning of the universe
and of how the universe came into being.
Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as matter. From a condition
of non-existence in which neither matter, nor energy, nor even time existed,
and which can only be described metaphysically, matter, energy, and time
were all created. This fact, only recently discovered by modern physics,
was announced to us in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago.
THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE
In the Qur'an, which was revealed 14 centuries ago at a time when the
science of astronomy was still primitive, the expansion of the universe
was described like this:
And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily,
it is We Who are steadily expanding it. (Surat adh-Dhariyat, 47)
The word "heaven", as stated in this verse, is used in various places
in the Qur'an with the meaning of space and universe. Here again, the
word is used with this meaning. In other words, in the Qur'an it is revealed
that the universe "expands". And this is the very conclusion that science
has reached today.
Until the dawn of the twentieth century, the only view prevailing in
the world of science was that "the universe has a constant nature and
it has existed since infinite time". The research, observations, and calculations
carried out by means of modern technology, however, have revealed that
the universe in fact had a beginning, and that it constantly "expands".
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Russian physicist Alexander
Friedmann and the Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre theoretically calculated
that the universe is in constant motion and that it is expanding.
This fact was proved also by observational data in 1929. While observing
the sky with a telescope, Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer, discovered
that the stars and galaxies were constantly moving away from each other.
A universe where everything constantly moves away from everything else
implied a constantly expanding universe. The observations carried out
in the following years verified that the universe is constantly expanding.
This fact was explained in the Qur'an when that was still unknown to anyone.
This is because the Qur'an is the word of Allah, the Creator, and the
Ruler of the entire universe.
THE SPLITTING ASUNDER OF 'THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH'
Another verse about the creation of the heavens is as follows:
Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined
together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder, and
We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? (Surat
The word ratq translated as "joined together" means "mixed in each, blended"
in Arabic dictionaries. It is used to refer to two different substances
that make up a whole. The phrase "we clove them asunder" is the verb fataqa
in Arabic and implies that something comes into being by tearing apart
or destroying the structure of ratq. The sprouting of a seed from the
soil is one of the actions to which this verb is applied.
Let us take a look at the verse again with this knowledge in mind. In
the verse, sky and earth are at first subject to the status of ratq. They
are separated (fataqa) with one coming out of the other. Intriguingly,
when we remember the first moments of the Big Bang, we see that a single
point included all the matter in the universe. In other words, everything,
including "the heavens and earth" which were not created yet, were included
in this point in a condition of ratq. This point exploded violently, causing
its matter to fataqa and in the process created the structure of the whole
When we compare the expressions in the verse with scientific findings,
we see that they are in perfect agreement with each other. Interestingly
enough, these findings were not arrived at until the twentieth century.
While referring to the Sun and the Moon in the Qur'an, it is emphasized
that each moves in a definite orbit.
It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon.
They swim along, each in an orbit. (Surat al-Anbiya', 33)
It is mentioned in another verse, too, that the Sun is not static but
moves in a definite orbit:
And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree
of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (Surah Ya Sin, 38)
These facts communicated in the Qur'an have been discovered by astronomical
observations in our age. According to the calculations of experts on astronomy,
the Sun is traveling at the enormous speed of 720,000 kilometers an hour
in the direction of the star Vega in a particular orbit called the Solar
Apex. This means that the sun travels roughly 17,280,000 kilometers a
day. Along with the Sun, and all planets and satellites within the gravitational
system of the Sun also travel the same distance. In addition, all the
stars in the universe are in a similar planned motion.
That the entire universe is full of paths and orbits such as this one,
is written in the Qur'an as follows:
By the sky full of paths and orbits. (Surat ahd-Dhariyat, 7)
There are about 200 billion galaxies in the universe, consisting of nearly
200 billion stars in each. Most of these stars have planets, and most
of those planets have satellites. All of these heavenly bodies move in
very precisely computed orbits. For millions of years, each has been "swimming"
along in its own orbit in perfect harmony and order with all the others.
Moreover, many comets also move along in the orbits determined for them.
The orbits in the universe do not only belong to celestial bodies. The
galaxies also travel at enormous speeds in computed, planned orbits. During
these movements, none of these celestial bodies cuts across another's
path, or collides with another.
Surely at the time the Qur'an was revealed, mankind did not possess today's
telescopes or advanced observation technologies to observe millions of
kilometres of space, nor the modern knowledge of physics or astronomy.
Therefore, at that time, it was not possible to determine scientifically
that space is "full of paths and orbits" as stated in the verse. However,
this was openly declared to us in the Qur'an that was revealed at that
time:-because the Qur'an is the word of Allah.
The Roundness of the Earth
He has created the Heavens and the Earth for Truth. He wraps the night
up in the day, and wraps the day up in the night. (Surat az-Zumar, 5)
In the Qur'an, the words used for describing the universe are quite remarkable.
The Arabic word that is translated as "to wrap" in the above verse is
"takwir". In English, it means "to make one thing lap over another, folded
up as a garment that is laid away". (For instance, in Arabic dictionaries
this word is used for the action of wrapping one thing around another,
in the way that a turban is put on.)
The information given in the verse about the day and the night wrapping
each other up includes accurate information about the shape of the world.
This can be true only if the earth is round. This means that in the Qur'an,
which was revealed in the seventh century, the roundness of the world
was hinted at.
It should be remembered, however, that the understanding of astronomy
of the time perceived the world differently. It was then thought that
the world was a flat plane and all scientific calculations and explanations
were based on this belief. The verses of the Qur'an, however, include
information that we have learned only in the past century. Since the Qur'an
is Allah's word, the most correct words were used in it when it comes
to describing the universe.
The Protected Roof
In the Qur'an, Allah calls our attention to a very interesting attribute
of the sky:
We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away
from Our Signs… (Surat al-Anbiya', 32)
This attribute of the sky has been proved by scientific research carried
out in the twentieth century.
The atmosphere surrounding the earth serves crucial functions for the
continuity of life. While destroying many meteors big and small as they
approach the earth, it prevents them from falling to earth and harming
In addition, the atmosphere filters the light rays coming from space
that are harmful to living things. Interestingly, the atmosphere lets
only harmless and useful rays- visible light, near ultraviolet light,
and radio waves pass through. All of this radiation is vital for life.
Near ultraviolet rays, which are only partially let in by the atmosphere,
are very important for the photosynthesis of plants and for the survival
of all living beings. The majority of the intense ultraviolet rays emitted
from the sun are filtered out by the ozone layer of the atmosphere and
only a limited-and essential-part of the ultraviolet spectrum reaches
The protective function of the atmosphere does not end here. The atmosphere
also protects the earth from the freezing cold of the space, which is
about minus 270 o C.
It is not only the atmosphere that protects the Earth from harmful effects.
In addition to the atmosphere, the Van Allen Belt, a layer caused by the
magnetic field of the Earth, also serves as a shield against the harmful
radiation that threatens our planet. This radiation, which is constantly
emitted by the Sun and other stars, is deadly to living things. If the
Van Allen belt did not exist, the massive outbursts of energy called solar
flares that frequently occur in the Sun would destroy all life on Earth.
Dr. Hugh Ross has this to say on the importance of Van Allen Belts to
In fact, the Earth has the highest density of any of
the planets in our Solar System. This large nickel-iron core is responsible
for our large magnetic field. This magnetic field produces the Van-Allen
radiation shield, which protects the Earth from radiation bombardment.
If this shield were not present, life would not be possible on the Earth.
The only other rocky planet to have any magnetic field is Mercury - but
its field strength is 100 times less than the Earth's. Even Venus, our
sister planet, has no magnetic field. The Van-Allen radiation shield is
a design unique to the Earth.1
The energy transmitted in just one of these bursts detected in recent
years was calculated to be equivalent to 100 billion atomic bombs similar
to the one dropped on Hiroshima. Fifty-eight hours after the burst, it
was observed that the magnetic needles of compasses displayed unusual
movement and 250 kilometers above the earth's atmosphere, the temperature
suddenly increased to 2,500 o C.
In short, a perfect system is at work high above the Earth. It surrounds
our world and protects it against external threats. Scientists only learned
about it recently, yet centuries ago, Allah informed us in the Qur'an
of the world's atmosphere functioning as a protective shield.
THE RETURNING SKY
The verse 11 of Sura Tarik in the Qur'an, refers to the "returning" function
of the sky.
By Heaven with its cyclical systems. (Surat at-Tariq, 11)
This word interpreted as "cyclical" in Qur'an translations also has meanings
of "sending back" or "returning".
As known, the atmosphere surrounding the Earth consists of many layers.
Each layer serves an important purpose for the benefit of life. Research
has revealed that these layers have the function of turning the materials
or rays they are exposed to back into space or back down to the Earth.
Now let us examine with a few examples of this "recycling" function of
the layers encircling the Earth.
The troposphere, 13 to 15 kilometers above the Earth, enables water vapor
rising from the surface of the Earth to be condensed and turn back as
The ozone layer, at an altitude of 25 kilometers, reflects harmful radiation
and ultraviolet light coming from space and turns both back into space.
The ionosphere, reflects radio waves broadcast from the Earth back down
to different parts of the world, just like a passive communications satellite,
and thus makes wireless communication, radio, and television broadcasting
possible over long distances.
The magnetosphere layer turns the harmful radioactive particles emitted
by the Sun and other stars back into space before they reach the Earth.
The fact that this property of the atmosphere's layers, that was onlt
demonstrated in the recent past was announced centuries ago in the Qur'an,
once again demonstrates that the Qur'an is the word of Allah.
The Function of Mountains
The Qur'an draws attention to a very important geological function of
We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would not move
under them… (Surat al-Anbiya', 31)
As we have noticed, it is stated in the verse that mountains have the
function of preventing shocks in the Earth.
This fact was not known by anyone at the time the Qur'an was revealed.
It was in fact brought to light only recently as a result of the findings
of modern geology.
According to these findings, mountains emerge as a result of the movements
and collisions of massive plates forming the Earth's crust. When two plates
collide, the stronger one slides under the other, the one on the top bends
and forms heights and mountains. The layer beneath proceeds under the
ground and makes a deep extension downward. That means that mountains
have a portion stretching downwards, as large as their visible parts on
In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows:
Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges,
the crust sinks deeper into the mantle.2
In a verse, this role of the mountains is pointed out by a comparison
Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs? (Surat
Mountains, in other words, clench the plates in the Earth's crust together
by extending above and beneath the Earth's surface at the conjunction
points of these plates. In this way, they fix the Earth's crust, and prevent
it from drifting over the magma stratum or among its plates. Briefly,
we may liken mountains to nails that keep pieces of wood together.
This fixing function of the mountains is described in scientific literature
by the term "isostasy". Isostasy means the following:
Isostasy: general equilibrium in the Earth's crust maintained
by a yielding flow of rock material beneath the surface under gravitational
This vital role of mountains, that was discovered by modern geology and
seismic research, was revealed in the Qur'an centuries ago as an example
of the supreme wisdom in Allah's creation.
We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would not move
under them... (Surat al-Anbiya', 31)
THE MOVEMENTS OF THE MOUNTAINS
In one verse, we are informed that mountains are not motionless as they
seem, but are in constant motion.
You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past like clouds.
(Surat an-Naml, 88)
This motion of the mountains is caused by the movement of the Earth's
crust that they are located on. The Earth's crust 'floats' over the mantle
layer, which is denser. It was at the beginning of the twentieth century
when, for the first time in history, a German scientist by the name of
Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents of the earth had been attached
together when it first formed, but then drifted in different directions,
and thus separated as they moved away from each other.
Geologists understood that that Wegener was right only in the 1980s,
50 years after his death. As Wegener pointed out in an article published
in 1915, the land masses on the earth were joined together about 500 million
years ago. As Wegener pointed out in a 1915 article, the land masses of
the earth were joined together some 500 million years ago, and this large
mass, called Pangaea, was located in the South Pole.
Approximately 180 million years ago, Pangaea divided into two parts,
which drifted in different directions. One of these giant continents was
Gondwana, which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. The
second one was Laurasia, which included Europe, North America and Asia,
except for India. Over the next 150 million years following this separation,
Gondwana and Laurasia divided into smaller parts.
These continents that emerged after the split of Pangaea have been constantly
moving on the Earth's surface at several centimetres per year, in the
meantime changing the sea and land ratios of the Earth.
Discovered as a result of the geological research carried out at the
beginning of the twentieth century, this movement of the Earth's crust
is explained by scientists as follows:
The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle, with
a thickness of about 100 kms., are divided into segments called plates.
There are six major plates, and several small ones. According to the theory
called plate tectonics, these plates move about on Earth, carrying continents
and ocean floor with them. Continental motion has been measured at from
1-5 cm per year. As the plates continue to move about, this will produce
a slow change in Earth's geography. Each year, for instance, the Atlantic
Ocean becomes slightly wider.4
There is a very important point to be stated here: Allah
has referred to the motion of mountains as a drifting action in the verse.
Today, modern scientists also use the term "Continental Drift" for this
Unquestionably, it is one of the miracles of the Qur'an that this scientific
fact, which has recently been discovered by science, was announced in
The Relativity of Time
Today, the relativity of time is a proven scientific fact. This was revealed
by Einstein's theory of relativity at the early years of the twentieth
century. Until then, people did not know that time was a relative concept,
and that it could change according to the environment. Yet, the great
scientist Albert Einstein openly proved this fact with the theory of relativity.
He showed that time is dependent on mass and velocity. In the history
of humanity, no one had expressed this fact clearly before.
With one exception though; the Qur'an included information about time's
being relative! Some verses about the subject read:
They ask you to hasten the punishment. Allah will not
break His promise. A day with your Lord is equivalent to a thousand years
in the way you count. (Surat al-Hajj, 47)
He directs the whole affair from heaven to earth. Then
it will again ascend to Him on a Day whose length is a thousand years
by the way you measure. (Surat as-Sajda, 5)
The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day whose
length is fifty thousand years. (Surat al-Ma'arij, 4)
In some verses, it is indicated that people perceive time differently
and that sometimes people can perceive a very short period of time as
a very lengthy one. The following conversation of people held during their
judgement in the Hereafter is a good example of this:
He will say, 'How many years did you tarry on the earth?' They will say,
'We tarried there for a day or part of a day. Ask those able to count!'
He will say, 'You only tarried there for a little while if you did but
know! (Surat al-Mu'minun, 112-114)
The fact that the relativity of time is so clearly mentioned in the Qur'an,
which started to be revealed in 610, is another evidence that it is a
The Proportion of Rain
One of the items of information given in the Qur'an about rain is that
it is sent down to Earth in measured amounts. This is mentioned in Sura
Zukhruf as follows;
It is He Who sends down water in measured amounts from the sky by which
We bring a dead land back to life. That is how you too will be raised
(from the dead). (Surat az-Zukhruf, 11)
This measured quantity in rain has again been discovered by modern research.
It is estimated that in one second, approximately 16 million tons of water
evaporates from the Earth. This figure amounts to 513 trillion tons of
water in one year. This number is equal to the amount of rain that falls
on the Earth in a year. This means that water continuously circulates
in a balanced cycle, in a "measure". Life on Earth depends on this water
cycle. Even if people used all the available technology in the world,
they would not be able to reproduce this cycle artificially.
Even a minor deviation in this equilibrium would very soon give rise
to a major ecological imbalance that would bring about the end of life
on Earth. Yet, this never happens, and rain keeps falling every year in
exactly the same quantity just as revealed in the Qur'an.
The Formation of Rain
How rain forms remained a great mystery for a long time. Only after weather
radar was invented was it possible to discover the stages by which rain
According to this, the formation of rain takes place in three stages.
First, the "raw material" of rain rises up into the air with the wind.
Later, clouds are formed, and finally raindrops appear.
The Qur'an's account of the formation of rain refers exactly to this
process. In one verse, this formation is described in this way:
It is Allah Who sends the winds which stir up clouds which He spreads
about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark clumps and you
see the rain come pouring out from the middle of them. When He makes it
fall on those of His servants He wills, they rejoice. (Surat ar-Rum, 48)
Now, let us examine these three stages outlined in the verse more technically.
FIRST STAGE: "It is Allah Who sends
Countless air bubbles formed by the foaming of the oceans continuously
burst and cause water particles to be ejected towards the sky. These particles,
which are rich in salt, are then carried away by winds and rise upward
in the atmosphere. These particles, which are called aerosols, function
as water traps, and form cloud drops by collecting around the water vapour
themselves, which rises from the seas as tiny droplets.
SECOND STAGE: ".... which stir up clouds
which He spreads about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark
The clouds are formed from water vapour that condenses around the salt
crystals or dust particles in the air. Because the water droplets in these
clouds are very small (with a diameter between 0.01 and 0.02 mm), the
clouds are suspended in the air, and spread across the sky. Thus, the
sky is covered in clouds.
THIRD STAGE: "…and you see the rain
come pouring our from the middle of them"
The water particles that surround salt crystals and dust particles thicken
and form raindrops, so, drops that become heavier than the air leave the
clouds and start to fall to the ground as rain.
As we have seen, every stage in the formation of rain is related in the
verses of the Qur'an. Furthermore, these stages are explained in exactly
the right sequence. Just as with many other natural phenomena on the Earth,
Allah gives the most correct explanation of this phenomenon as well, and
made it known to people in the Qur'an centuries before it was discovered.
In another verse, the following information is given about the formation
Have you not seen how Allah drives along the clouds, then joins them
together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come
out of it? And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds)
with cold hail in them, striking with it anyone He wills and averting
it from anyone He wills. The brightness of His lightning almost blinds
the sight. (Surat an-Nur, 43)
Scientists studying cloud types came across surprising results regarding
the formation of rain clouds. Rain clouds are formed and shaped according
to definite systems and stages. The formation stages of cumulonimbus,
one kind of rain cloud, are these:
1.STAGE, Being driven along: Clouds are carried
along, that is, they are driven along, by the wind.
2.STAGE, Joining: Then, small
clouds (cumulus clouds) driven along by the wind join together, forming
a larger cloud. 6
3.STAGE, Stacking: When the small clouds join together,
updrafts within the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the centre
of the cloud are stronger than those near the edges. These updrafts cause
the cloud body to grow vertically, so the cloud is stacked up. This vertical
growth causes the cloud body to stretch into cooler regions of the atmosphere,
where drops of water and hail formulate and begin to grow larger and larger.
When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for the updrafts to
support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain, hail, etc.7
We must remember that meteorologists have only recently come to know
these details of cloud formation, structure and function, by using advanced
equipment like planes, satellites, computers etc. It is evident that Allah
has given us a piece of information that could not have been known 1,400
The Fecundating Winds
In one verse of the Qur'an, the "fecundating" characteristic of the winds,
and the formation of rain as a result are mentioned.
And We send the fecundating winds, then cause water to descend from the
sky, therewith providing you with water in abundance. (Surat al-Hijr,
In this verse, it is pointed out that the first stage in the formation
of rain is wind. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the only
relationship between the wind and the rain that was known, was that the
wind drove the clouds. However, modern meteorological findings have demonstrated
the "fecundating" role of the wind in the formation of rain.
This fecundating function of the wind works in the following way:
On the surface of oceans and seas, countless air bubbles form because
of the water's foaming action. The moment these bubbles burst, thousands
of tiny particles, with a diameter of just one hundredth of a millimeter,
are thrown up into the air. These particles, known as "aerosols", mix
with dust carried from the land by the wind, and are carried to the upper
layers of the atmosphere. These particles carried to higher altitudes
by winds come into contact with water vapour up there. Water vapour condenses
around these particles and turns into water droplets. These water droplets
first come together and form clouds, and then fall to the Earth in the
form of rain.
As seen, winds "fecundate" the water vapour floating in the air with
the particles they carry from the sea, and eventually help the formation
of rain clouds.
If winds did not possess this property, water droplets in the upper atmosphere
would never form, and there would be no such thing as rain.
The most important point here is that this critical role of the wind
in the formation of rain was stated centuries ago in a verse of the Qur'an,
at a time when people knew very little about natural phenomena…
The Birth of a Human Being
Many diverse subjects are mentioned in the Qur'an in the course of inviting
people to believe. Allah shows sometimes the heavens, sometimes animals,
and sometimes plants as evidence to man. In many of the verses, people
are called upon to turn their attention to their own creation. They are
often reminded how man came into the world, which stages he has passed
through, and what his essence is:
It is We Who have created you. Why, then, do you not accept the truth?
Have you ever considered that (seed) which you emit? Is it you who create
it? Or are We the Creator? (Surat al-Waqi'a, 57-59)
The creation of man, and the miraculous aspect of this, is stressed in
many other verses. Some items of information within these verses are so
detailed that it is impossible for anyone living in the seventh century
to have known them. Some of these are as follows:
1. Man is not created from the entire semen, but only
a very small portion of it (sperm).
2. It is the male that determines the sex of the baby.
3. The human embryo adheres to the mother's uterus like
4. The embryo develops in three dark regions in the
People living when the Qur'an was revealed, to be sure, knew that the
basic substance of birth was related to the semen of the male emitted
during sexual intercourse. And the fact that the baby was born after a
nine-month period was obviously an observable event not calling for any
further investigation. However, the items of information just quoted were
far above the level of learning of the people living at that time. These
were verified by twentieth century science.
Now, let us go over them one by one.
A Drop of Semen
During sexual intercourse, 250 million sperms are emitted from the male
at a time. The sperms undertake an arduous journey in the mother's body
until they make it to the ovum. Only a thousand out of 250 million sperms
succeed in reaching the ovum. At the end of this five-minute race, the
ovum, half the size of a grain of salt, will let only one of the sperms
in. That is, the essence of man is not the whole semen, but only a small
part of it. This is explained in the Qur'an:
Does man reckon he will be left uncontrolled (without purpose)? Was he
not once a drop of ejected semen? (Surat al-Qiyama, 36-37)
As we have seen, the Qur'an informs us that man is made not from the
entire semen, but only a small part of it. That the particular emphasis
in this statement announces a fact only discovered by modern science is
evidence that the statement is divine in origin.
The Mixture in the Semen
The fluid called semen, which contains the sperms, does not consist of
sperms alone. On the contrary, it is made up of a mixture of different
fluids. These fluids have different functions, such as containing the
sugar necessary for providing energy for the sperms, neutralising the
acids at the entrance of the uterus, and creating a slippery environment
for the easy movement of the sperms.
Interestingly enough, when semen is mentioned in the Qur'an, this fact,
which was discovered by modern science, is also referred to, and semen
is defined as a mixed fluid:
We created man from a mingled drop to test him, and We made him hearing
and seeing." (Surat al-Insan, 2)
In another verse, semen is again referred to as a mixture, and it is
stressed that man is created from the "extract" of this mixture:
He Who has created all things in the best possible
way. He commenced the creation of man from clay; then He made his progeny
from an extract of discarded fluid. (Surat as-Sajda, 7-8)
The Arabic word "sulala", translated as "extract", means the essential
or best part of something. By either implication, it means "part of a
whole". This shows that the Qur'an is the word of a Will that knows the
creation of man down to its slightest detail. This Will is Allah, the
Creator of man.
The Sex of the Baby
Until fairly recently, it was thought that a baby's sex was determined
by the mother's cells. Or at least, it was believed that the sex was determined
by the male and female cells together. But we are given different information
in the Qur'an, where it is stated that masculinity or femininity is created
out of "a drop of sperm which has been ejected".
He has created both sexes, male and female from a drop of semen which
has been ejected. (Surat an-Najm, 45-46)
The developing disciplines of genetics and molecular biology have scientifically
validated the accuracy of this information given by the Qur'an. It is
now understood that sex is determined by the sperm cells from the male,
and that the female has no role in this process.
Chromosomes are the main elements in determining sex. Two of the 46 chromosomes
that determine the structure of a human being are identified as the sex
chromosomes. These two chromosomes are called "XY" in males, and "XX"
in females, because the shapes of the chromosomes resemble these letters.
The Y chromosome carries the genes that code for masculinity, while the
X chromosome carries the genes that code for femininity.
The formation of a new human being begins with the cross combination
of one of these chromosomes, which exist in males and females in pairs.
In females, both components of the sex cell, which divides into two during
ovulation, carry X chromosomes. The sex cell of a male, on the other hand,
produces two different kinds of sperm, one that contains X chromosomes
and the other Y chromosomes. If an X chromosome from the female unites
with a sperm that contains an X chromosome, then the baby is female. If
it unites with the sperm that contains a Y chromosome, the baby is male.
In other words, a baby's sex is determined by which chromosome from the
male unites with the female's ovum.
None of this was known until the discovery of genetics in the twentieth
century. Indeed, in many cultures, it was believed that a baby's sex was
determined by the female's body. That was why women were blamed when they
gave birth to girls.
Thirteen centuries before human genes were discovered, however, the Qur'an
revealed information that denies this superstition, and referred to the
origin of sex lying not with women, but with the semen coming from men.
The Clot Clinging to the Uterus
If we keep on examining the facts announced to us in the Qur'an about
the formation of human beings, we again encounter some very important
When the sperm of the male unites with the ovum of the female, the essence
of the baby to be born is formed. This single cell, known as a "zygote"
in biology, will instantly start to reproduce by dividing, and eventually
become a "piece of flesh" called an embryo. This of course can only be
seen by human beings with the aid of a microscope.
The embryo, however, does not spend its developmental period in a void.
It clings to the uterus just like roots that are firmly fixed to the earth
by their tendrils. Through this bond, the embryo can obtain the substances
essential to its development from the mother's body.8
Here, at this point, a very significant miracle of the Qur'an is revealed.
While referring to the embryo developing in the mother's womb, Allah uses
the word "alaq" in the Qur'an:
Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from alaq. Recite: And
your Lord is the Most Generous. (Surat al-'Alaq, 1-3)
The meaning of the word "alaq" in Arabic is "a thing that clings to some
place". The word is literally used to describe leeches that cling to a
body to suck blood.
Certainly, the use of such an appropriate word for the embryo developing
in the mother's womb, proves once again that the Qur'an is a revelation
from Allah, the Lord of all the Worlds.
The wrapping of muscles over the bones
Another important aspect of the information given in the verses of the
Qur'an is the developmental stages of a human being in the mother's womb.
It is stated in the verses that in the mother's womb, the bones develop
first, and then the muscles form which wrap around them.
(We) then formed the drop into a clot and formed the clot into a lump
and formed the lump into bones and clothed the bones in flesh; and then
brought him into being as another creature. Blessed be Allah, the Best
of Creators! (Surat al-Mu'minun, 14)
Embryology is the branch of science that studies the development of the
embryo in the mother's womb. Until very recently, embryologists assumed
that the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at the same time. For
this reason, for a long time, some people claimed that these verses conflicted
with science. Yet, advanced microscopic research conducted by virtue of
new technological developments has revealed that the revelation of the
Qur'an is word for word correct.
These observations at the microscopic level showed that the development
inside the mother's womb takes place in just the way it is described in
the verses. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies. Then muscular
cells that are selected from amongst the tissue around the bones come
together and wrap around the bones.
This event is described in a scientific publication titled Developing
Human in the following words:
During the seventh week, the skeleton begins to spread
throughout the body and the bones take their familiar shapes. At the end
of the seventh week and during the eighth week the muscles take their
positions around the bone forms.9
In short, man's developmental stages as described in the Qur'an are in
perfect harmony with the findings of modern embryology.
The bones of the baby completing its development in the mother's womb
are clothed with flesh during one particular stage.
Three Stages of the Baby in the Womb
In the Qur'an, it is related that man is created in a three-stage process
in the mother's womb.
... He creates you stage by stage in your mothers' wombs in a threefold
darkness. That is Allah, your Lord. Sovereignty is His. There is no god
but Him. So what has made you deviate? (Surat az-Zumar, 6)
As will be understood, it is pointed out in this verse
that a human being is created in the mother's womb in three distinct stages.
Indeed, modern biology has revealed that the baby's embryological development
takes place in three distinct regions in the mother's womb. Today, in
all the embryology textbooks studied in faculties of medicine, this subject
is taken as an element of basic knowledge. For instance in Basic Human
Embryology, a fundamental reference text in the field of embryology, this
fact is stated as follows: "The life in the uterus has three stages: pre-embryonic;
first two and a half weeks, embryonic; until the end of the eight week,
and fetal; from the eight week to labor."10
These phases refer to the different developmental stages of a baby. In
brief, the main characteristics of these developmental stages are as follows:
- Pre-embryonic stage
In this first phase, the zygote grows by division, and when it becomes
a cell cluster, it buries itself in the wall of the uterus. While they
continue growing, the cells organise themselves in three layers.
- Embryonic Stage
The second phase lasts for five and a half weeks, during which the baby
is called an "embryo". In this stage, the basic organs and systems of
the body start to appear from the cell layers.
- Fetal stage
From this stage on, the embryo is called a "foetus". This phase begins
at the eighth week of gestation and lasts until the moment of birth. The
distinctive characteristic of this stage is that the foetus looks just
like a human being, with its face, hands and feet. Although it is only
3 cm. long initially, all of its organs have become apparent. This phase
lasts for about 30 weeks, and development continues until the week of
Information on the development in the mother's womb became available
only after observations with modern devices. Yet, just like many other
scientific facts, these pieces of information are imparted in the verses
of the Qur'an in a miraculous way. The fact that such detailed and accurate
information was given in the Qur'an at a time when people had scarce information
on medical matters is clear evidence that the Qur'an is not the word of
man, but the word of Allah.
The Identity in the Fingerprint
While it is stated in the Qur'an that it is easy for Allah to bring man
back to life after death, peoples' fingerprints are particularly emphasized:
Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his
fingers. (Surat al-Qiyama, 3-4)
The emphasis on fingerprints has a very special meaning. This is because
everyone's fingerprint is unique to himself. Every person who is alive
or who has ever lived in this world has a set of unique fingerprints.
That is why fingerprints are accepted as a very important proof of identity,
exclusive to their owner, and are used for this purpose around the world.
But what is important is that this feature of fingerprints was only discovered
in the late nineteenth century. Before then, people regarded fingerprints
as ordinary curves without any specific importance or meaning. However
in the Qur'an, Allah points to the fingertips, which did not attract anyone's
attention at that time, and calls our attention to their importance-an
importance that was only finally understood in our day.
THE INFORMATION GIVEN ABOUT THE FUTURE IN THE QUR'AN
Another miraculous aspect of the Qur'an is that it revealed beforehand
a number important events that would occur in the future. Verse 27 of
Surat al-Fath, for example, gave the believers the glad tidings that they
would conquer Mecca, which was then under pagan occupation:
"Allah has confirmed His Messenger's vision with truth: 'You will enter
the Masjid al-Haram in safety, Allah willing, shaving your heads and cutting
your hair without any fear.' He knew what you did not know and ordained,
in place of this, an imminent victory. (Surat al-Fath, 27)
On close consideration, the verse can be seen to announce yet another
victory that will take place before the victory of Mecca. Indeed, as stated
in the verse, the believers first conquered the Khyber Fortress, which
was under the control of the Jews, and then entered Mecca.
The announcement of the events that will take place in the future is
only one of the pieces of wisdom in the Qur'an. This is also evidence
to the fact that the Qur'an is the word of Allah, Who has infinite knowledge.
The defeat of Byzantium is one of the pieces of news given about the future,
accompanied by other information that could not have been known by the
people of that time. The most interesting point about this historical
event, which will be examined in detail in the following pages, is that
the Romans were defeated in the lowest region in the world. This is interesting
because "the lowest point" is particularly stressed in the relevant verse.
With the technology of that time, it was obviously impossible to make
such a measurement and to determine the lowest point in the world. This
is a revelation to people from Allah, the All-Knowing.
The Victory of Byzantium
Another astonishing piece of revelation that the Qur'an gives about the
future is to be found in the first verses of Surat ar-Rum, which refers
to the Byzantine Empire, the eastern part of the later Roman Empire. In
these verses, it is stated that the Byzantine Empire had met with a great
defeat, but that it would soon gain victory.
Elif, Lam, Mim. The Romans have been defeated in the lowest land, but
after their defeat they will themselves be victorious in a few years'
time. The affair is Allah's from beginning to end. (Surat ar-Rum, 1-4)
These verses were revealed around 620 AD, almost seven
years after the severe defeat of Christian Byzantium at the hands of the
idolater Persians. Yet it was related in the verses that Byzantium would
shortly be victorious. In fact, Byzantium had then suffered such heavy
losses that it seemed impossible for it even to survive, let alone be
victorious again. Not only the Persians, but also Avars, Slavs and Lombards
posed serious threats to the Byzantine Empire. The Avars had reached as
far as the walls of Constantinople. The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius had
ordered the gold and silver in churches to be melted and turned into money
in order to meet the expenses of the army. When these proved insufficient,
even bronze statues were melted down to be turned into money. Many governors
had revolted against Emperor Heraclius, and the empire was on the point
of collapse. Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Armenia,
which had earlier belonged to Byzantium, were invaded by the idolater
In short, everyone was expecting the Byzantine Empire to be destroyed.
But right at that moment, the first verses of Surat ar-Rum were revealed,
announcing that Byzantium would triumph in a few years' time. This victory
seemed so impossible that Arab polytheists had gone so far as to make
fun of these verses. They thought that the victory announced in the Qur'an
would never come true.
Around seven years after the revelation of the first
verses of Surat ar-Rum, in December 627 AD, a decisive battle between
Byzantium and the Persian Empire was fought at Nineveh. And this time
the Byzantine army unexpectedly defeated the Persians. A few months later,
the Persians had to make an agreement with Byzantium, which obliged them
to return the territories they had taken from it.12
At the end, "the victory of the Romans," Allah proclaimed in the Qur'an,
miraculously came true.
Another miracle revealed in these verses is the announcement of a geographical
fact that could not have been known by anyone at that time.
In the third verse of Sura Rum, we are informed that the Romans had been
defeated in the lowest region of the Earth. This expression, "Adna al
Ard" in Arabic, is interpreted as "a nearby place" in many translations.
Yet this is not the literal meaning of the original statement, but rather
a figurative interpretation of it. The word "Adna" in Arabic is derived
from the word "deni", which means "low" and "ard", which means "world".
Therefore the expression "Adna al Ard" means "the lowest place on the
Most interestingly, the crucial stages of the war fought between the
Byzantine Empire and the Persians, when the Byzantines were defeated and
lost Jerusalem, had really taken place at the lowest point on earth. This
specified region is the Dead Sea basin, which is situated at the intersection
point of the lands belonging to Syria, Palestine, and Jordan. The "Dead
Sea", lying 395 meters below sea level, really is the lowest region on
This means that the Byzantines were defeated at the lowest part of the
world, just as stated in the verse.
The most interesting point lies in the fact that the altitude of the
Dead Sea could only be measured with modern measurement techniques. Before
that, it was impossible for anyone to know that it was the lowest region
on the surface of the Earth. Yet, this region was stated to be the lowest
point on the Earth in the Qur'an. Hence, this provides further evidence
that the Qur'an is divine revelation.
THE HISTORICAL MIRACLES OF THE QUR'AN
The Word "Haman" In The Qur'an
The information given in the Qur'an about ancient Egypt reveals many
historical facts that had remained undisclosed until recent times. These
facts also indicate to us that every word in the Qur'an has been revealed
by sure wisdom.
Haman is a character whose name is mentioned in the Qur'an, along with
the Pharaoh. He is recorded in six different places of the Qur'an as one
of the closest men to the Pharaoh.
Surprisingly the name of Haman is never mentioned in those sections of
the Torah pertaining to the life of Musa. However, the mention of Haman
can be found in the last chapters of the Old Testament as the helper of
a Babylonian king who inflicted many cruelties on the Israelites approximately
1,100 years after Musa.
Some non-Muslims, who claim that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
him) wrote the Qur'an by copying from the Torah and the Bible, also assert
that during the process, he transferred some of the subjects related in
these books into the Qur'an incorrectly.
The absurdity of these claims was demonstrated only after the Egyptian
hieroglyphic alphabet had been deciphered, approximately 200 years ago,
and the name "Haman" discovered in the ancient scripts.
Before these discoveries, the writings and inscriptions of ancient Egypt
could not be understood. The language of ancient Egypt was hieroglyphic,
which survived through the ages. However, with the spread of Christianity
and other cultural influences in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, Egypt forsook
its ancient beliefs as well as hieroglyphic writing. The last known example
of the use of hieroglyphic writing was an inscription dated 394 AD. Then
that language was forgotten, leaving nobody who could read and understand
it. And that was the situation until some 200 years ago…
The mystery of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics was solved in 1799 by the
discovery of a tablet called the "Rosetta Stone" dating back to 196 B.C.
The importance of this inscription was that it was written in three different
forms of writing: Hieroglyphics, demotic (a simplified form of ancient
Egyptian hieratic writing) and Greek. With the help of the Greek script,
the ancient Egyptian writings were decoded. The translation of the inscription
was completed by a Frenchman named Jean-Françoise Champollion. Hence a
forgotten language and the events related in it were brought to light.
In this way, a great deal of knowledge about the civilization, religion
and social life of ancient Egypt became available.
Through the decoding of hieroglyph, an important piece
of knowledge was revealed: the name "Haman" was indeed mentioned in Egyptian
inscriptions. This name was referred to in a monument in the Hof Museum
In the dictionary of People in the New Kingdom, that
was prepared based on the entire collection of inscriptions, Haman is
said to be "the head of stone quarry workers".14
The result revealed a very important truth. Unlike the false assertion
of the opponents of the Qur'an, Haman was a person who lived in Egypt
at the time of Musa, who had been close to the Pharaoh, and had been involved
in construction work, just as imparted in the Qur'an.
Furthermore, the verse in the Qur'an describing the event where the Pharaoh
asked Haman to build a tower is in perfect agreement with this archaeological
Pharaoh said, 'Council, I do not know of any other god for you apart
from Me. Haman, kindle a fire for me over the clay and build me a lofty
tower so that perhaps I may be able to climb up to Musa's God! I consider
him a blatant liar.' (Surat al-Qasas, 38)
In conclusion, the existence of the name Haman in the ancient Egyptian
inscriptions not only rendered the fabricated claims of the opponents
of the Qur'an worthless, but also confirmed one more time the fact that
the Qur'an comes from Allah. In a miraculous way, the Qur'an conveys to
us historical information that could not have been possessed or understood
at the time of the Prophet.
Titles of Egyptian Rulers in the Qur'an
Musa was not the only prophet who lived in the lands of Egypt in the
history of ancient Egypt. The Prophet Yusuf had lived in Egypt long before
the time of Musa.
We encounter a certain parallel while reading about the stories of Musa
and Yusuf. While addressing the Egyptian ruler at the time of Yusuf, the
work "master" (the King) is used in the Qur'an:
"The King (master) said, 'Bring him (Yusuf) to me straight away! So I
may draw him very close to me.' When he had spoken with him, he declared,
'Today you are trusted, established in our sight.'" (Surah Yusuf, 54)
In contrast, the ruler at Musa's time is referred to
as the "Pharaoh":
We gave Musa nine Clear Signs. Ask the tribe of Israel
about when he came to them and Pharaoh said to him, 'Musa, I think you
are bewitched.' (Surat al-Isra', 101)
Historical records available today show us the reason for the different
nomenclature of these rulers. The word "pharaoh" was originally the name
given to the royal palace in ancient Egypt. The rulers of the old dynasty
did not use the title. The use of the word pharaoh as the title of the
ruler did not start until the "New Kingdom" era of Egyptian history. This
period started with the eighteenth dynasty (1539-1292 BC), and by the
twentieth dynasty (945-730 BC) the word "pharaoh" was adopted as title
Therefore the miraculous nature of the Qur'an is manifested here once
again: Yusuf lived at the time of the Old Kingdom, and hence the word
"master" was used for the Egyptian ruler rather than "pharaoh". On the
contrary, since Musa lived at the time of the New Kingdom, the ruler of
Egypt is addressed as "pharaoh".
There is no doubt that one has to have a knowledge of the history of
Egypt in order to make such a distinction. However, the history of Ancient
Egypt was completely forgotten by the 4th century, as hieroglyphics could
no longer be understood, and was not rediscovered until the nineteenth
century. Therefore, there was no in-depth knowledge of Egyptian history
available when the Qur'an was revealed. This fact is yet another one of
countless pieces of evidence proving that the Qur'an is the word of Allah.
The Qur'an is the Word of Allah
All that we have seen so far shows us one clear fact: the Qur'an is such
a book that all the news related in it has proved to be true. Facts about
scientific subjects and the news given about the future, facts that no
one could have known at the time, were announced in its verses. It is
impossible for this information to have been known with the level of knowledge
and technology of the day. It is clear that this provides clear evidence
that the Qur'an is not the word of man. The Qur'an is the word of the
Almighty Allah, the Originator of everything and the One Who encompasses
everything with His knowledge. In one verse, Allah says on the Qur'an
"If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies
in it." (The Qur'an, 4:82) Not only are there no inconsistencies in the
Qur'an, but every piece of information it contains reveals the miracle
of this divine book more and more each day.
What falls to man is to hold fast to this divine book Allah revealed,
and receive it as his one and only guide. In one of the verses, Allah
calls out to us:
"And this is a Book We have sent down and blessed, so follow it and have
fear of Allah so that hopefully you will gain mercy." (Surat al-An'am,
In His other verses, Allah remarks:
"Say: 'It is the truth from your Lord. Let anyone who
wishes to, believe, and let anyone who wishes to, disbelieve.' (Surat
"No indeed! Truly it (the Qur'an) is a reminder,
and whoever wills pays heed to it." (Surah 'Abasa, 11-12) (For
further information, please see The Miracles of the Qur'an by Harun Yahya,
Al-Attique Publishers, October 2001)
WORD REPETITIONS IN THE QUR'AN
Apart from the miraculous characteristics of the Qur'an which we have
looked into so far, it also contains a "mathematical miracle". One example
of this is the number of repetitions of certain words in the Qur'an. Some
related words are surprisingly repeated the same number of times. Below
is a list of such words and the number of repetitions in the Qur'an.
- The statement of "seven heavens" is repeated seven
times. "The creation of the heavens (khalq as-samawat)" is also repeated
-"Day (yawm)" is repeated 365 times in singular form,
while its plural and dual forms "days (ayyam and yawmayn)"
together are repeated 30 times. The number of repetitions of the word
"month" (shahar) is 12.
-"Treachery" (khiyanah) is repeated 16 times, while
the number of repetitions of the word "foul" (khabith)
- The number of repetitions of the words "plant" and
"tree" is the same: 26
- The word "payment or reward" is repeated 117 times,
while the expression "forgiveness" (mughfirah), which
is one of the basic principles of the Qur'an, is repeated exactly twice
that amount, 234 times.
- When we count the word "Say", we find it appears 332
times. We arrive at the same figure when we count the word "they
- The number of times the words, "world" (dunya) and
"hereafter" (akhira) are repeated is also the same: 115
- The word "satan" (shaitan) is used 88 times, as is
the word "angels" (malaika).
- The words "paradise" and "hell" are
each repeated 77 times.
- The word "zakah" is repeated 32 times, and the number
of repetitions of the word "blessing" (barakah) is also
- The expression "the righteous" (al-abraar) is used
6 times, but "the wicked" (al-fujjaar) is used half as
much, i.e., 3 times.
- The number of times the words "Summer-hot" and "winter-cold"
are repeated is the same: 5.
- The words "wine" (khamr) and "intoxication"
(saqara) are repeated the same number of times: 6
-"Wealth" is repeated 26 times, but "poverty",
on the other hand, half as much, that is, 13 times.
- The words "tongue" and "sermon" are
both repeated 25 times.
- The words "benefit" and "corrupt"
both appear 50 times.
-"Reward" (ajr) and "action" (fail)
are both repeated 108 times.
- The words "disaster" (al-musibah) and "thanks"
(al-shukr) appear the same number of times in the Qur'an: 75.
-"Love" (al-mahabbah) and "obedience"
(al-ta'ah) also appear the same number of times: 83.
- The word "facility, relief" (al-yisr) appears exactly
three times more often than the word "difficulty" (al-'usr).
-"Hardship" (al-shiddah) and "patience"
(al-sabr) both appear 115 times.
- The words "man" and "woman" are also
employed equally: 23 times.
-"Sun" (shams) and "light"
(nur) both appear 33 times in the Qur'an.
"Human being" is used 65 times: the sum of the number
of references to the stages of man's creation is the same: i.e.
Soil (turab) 17
Drop of Sperm (nutfah) 12
Embryo ('alaq) 6
A half formed lump of flesh (mudghah) 3
Bone ('idham) 15
Flesh (lahm) 12
- The word "salawat" appear five times in the Qur'an,
and Allah has commanded man to perform the salat five times a day.
- The word "land" appears 13 times in the qur'an, and
the word "sea" 32 times, giving a total of 45 references.
If we divide that number by that of the number of references to the land
we arrive at the figure 28.8888889%. The number of total references to
land and sea, 45, divided by the number of refernces to the sea in the
qur'an, 32, is 71.111111%. These figures represent the exact proportions
of land and sea on the earth today.