The Ape-Man Similarity is A Fabrication
completion of the human's gene map today does not yield the result that
man and ape are relatives. One need not be deceived by evolutionists'
attempts to exploit this new scientific development just as they have
done with all others.
As known, the recent completion of the human gene map
within the scope of the Human Genome Project was a very important scientific
advance. However, some results of this project are being distorted in
some evolutionist publications. It is claimed that the chimpanzee genes
bear a 98% similarity to human genes and this is promoted as an evidence
for the claim that apes are related to humans, and therefore, to the theory
of evolution. In truth, this is a "fake" evidence put forward
by evolutionists who take advantage of the lack of knowledge about this
subject in society.
98 % Similarity Claim is a Misleading Propaganda;
First, it should be stated that the concept of 98%
similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA frequently advanced by evolutionists
order to claim that the genetic make-up of man and chimpanzee bear a 98%
similarity, the genome of the chimpanzee also has to be mapped, just like
that of man, the two have to be compared, and the result of this comparison
has to be obtained. However no such result is available, because so far,
only the human gene has been mapped. No such research has yet been done
on the chimpanzee.
In reality, the 98 % similarity between human and chimpanzee
genes, which now and then enters the agenda, is a propaganda-oriented
slogan deliberately invented years ago. This similarity is an extraordinarily
exaggerated generalisation grounded on the similarity in the amino acid
sequences of some 30-40 basic proteins present in man and the chimpanzee.
A sequence analysis has been made with a method named "DNA hybridization"
on the DNA sequences that are correlated with these proteins and only
those limited number of proteins have been compared.
However there are about one hundred thousand genes,
and therefore one hundred thousand proteins encoded by these genes in
humans. For that reason, there is no scientific basis for claiming that
all the genes of man and ape are 98% similar just because of the similarity
in 40 out of 100,000 proteins.
On the other hand, the DNA comparison carried out on
these 40 proteins is also controversial. This comparison was made in 1987
by two biologists named Sibley and Ahlquist and published in the periodical
named Journal of Molecular Evolution.15
However another scientist named Sarich who examined the data obtained
by these two scientists concluded that the reliability of the method they
used is controversial and that the data has been exaggeratedly interpreted.16 Dr. Don Batten, another biologist, also
analysed the issue in 1996 and concluded that the real similarity rate
is 96.2%, not 98 %.17
Human DNA is also Similar to that of the Worm, Mosquito
Moreover, the above-mentioned basic proteins are common
vital molecules present in various other living things. The structure
of the same kinds of proteins present not only in chimpanzee, but also
in completely different living creatures, is very similar to that in humans.
For example, the genetic analyses published in New
Scientist have revealed a 75 % similarity between the DNAs of nematode
worms and man.18 This definitely does not mean that there
is only a 25% difference between man and these worms! According to the
family tree made by evolutionists, the Chordata phylum, in which man is
included, and the Nematoda phylum were different from each other even
530 million years ago.
On the other hand, in another finding which also appeared
in the local media, it was stated that the comparisons carried out between
the genes of fruit flies belonging to the Drosophila species and human
genes yielded a similarity of 60%.19
A headline from a popular newspaper in Turkey:"It is discovered
that we are relatives with flies!". A fruit fly, whose genetic code
has been mapped surprised scientists. The genes of the fly are similar
to those of man's by 60%.
In another case, analyses done on some proteins show
man as closely linked to some very different living things. In a survey
carried out by researchers in Cambridge University, some proteins of land-dwelling
animals were compared. Amazingly, in nearly all samples, human beings
and chickens were paired as the closest relatives. The next closest relative
was the crocodile.20
Another example used by evolutionists on "the
genetic similarity between man and ape", is the presence of 48 chromosomes
in chimpanzees and gorillas versus 46 chromosomes in man.Evolutionists
regard the closeness of the number of chromosomes as indication of an
evolutionary relationship. However, if this logic used by evolutionists
were valid, then man would have an even closer relative than the chimpanzee:
"the potato"!. Because the number of chromosomes in potatoes
is the same as that of man: 46
These examples confirm that the concept of genetic
similarity does not constitute evidence for the theory of evolution. This
is because the genetic similarities are not in line with the alleged evolutionary
schemes, and on the contrary, yield completely opposite results.
Genetic Similarities Upset the "Evolution Scheme"
that is Sought to be Constituted;
On the earth, there are distinctively designed systems of enormous
perfection within the bodies of millions of living beings. The vast
diversity and detailed design in all living beings from the smallest
to the biggest shows us the infinite Power of our Creator.
Unsurprisingly, when the issue is evaluated as a whole,
it is seen that the subject of "bio-chemical similarities" does
not constitute evidence for evolution, but rather leaves the theory in
the lurch. Dr. Christian Schwabe, a biochemistry researcher from the Medical
Faculty of South Carolina University, is an evolutionist scientist who
has spent years searching for evidence for evolution in the molecular
domain. In particular he carried out research on insulin and relaxin-type
proteins and tried to establish evolutionary relationships between living
beings. However, he had to confess many times that he could not find any
evidence for evolution at any point in his studies. In an article published
in a scientific journal, he said;
Molecular evolution is about to be accepted as a method
superior to palaeontology for the discovery of evolutionary relationships.
As a molecular evolutionist I should be elated. Instead it seems disconcerting
that many exceptions exist to the orderly progression of species as determined
by molecular homologies; so many in fact that I think the exception, the
quirks, may carry the more important message.21
Based on the recent findings obtained in the field
of molecular biology, the renowned biochemist Prof. Michael Denton made
the following comments;
Each class at molecular level is unique, isolated and
unlinked by intermediates. Thus, molecules, like fossils, have failed
to provide the elusive intermediates so long sought by evolutionary biology…
At a molecular level, no organism is "ancestral" or "primitive"
or "advanced" compared with its relatives… There is little doubt
that if this molecular evidence had been available a century ago… the
idea of organic evolution might never have been accepted.22
Similarities are not Evidence for Evolution but for
It is surely natural for the human body to bear some
molecular similarities to other living beings, because they all are made
up of the same molecules, they all use the same water and atmosphere,
and they all consume foods consisting of the same molecules. Certainly,
their metabolisms and therefore genetic make-ups would resemble one another.
This, however, is not evidence that they evolved from a common ancestor.
This "common material" is not the result
of an evolution but of "common design", that is, their being
created upon the same plan.
It is possible to explain this matter with an example;
all construction in the world is done with similar materials (brick, iron,
cement, etc.). This, however, does not mean that these buildings "evolved"
from each other. They are constructed separately by using common materials.
The same holds for living beings as well.
Life did not originate as the result of unconscious
coincidences as evolution claims, but as the result of the creation of
God, the Almighty, the possessor of infinite knowledge and wisdom.
In addition to all the information we have detailed
so far, we think it would be helpful to emphasize another fact.
Other than the superficial similarity between them,
apes are no closer to human beings than other animals. Moreover, when
intelligence is used as a point of comparison, the bee, which produces
the geometrical wonder of the honeycomb, or the spider, which produces
the engineering wonder of the web, are closer to man than the ape. We
can even say that they are superior in some aspects.
Your Lord said to the angels,
Iam going to create a human being out of clay. When Ihave formed
him and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall down in prostration
to him! (Surah Sad: 71-72)
Between man and ape, however, there is a tremendous
gap, never to be closed by fairy stories. After all, an ape is an animal
no different from a horse or a dog in terms of consciousness. Man, however,
is a being who has consciousness and will, who can think, talk, reason,
decide, and judge. All these qualities are functions of the "spirit"
he possesses. The most important difference that causes this huge gap
between man and other living beings is this "spirit". No physical
resemblance can close this gap between man and other living beings. The
only being that has "spirit" in nature is man.
In the Qur'an, this superior quality which man possesses
and which differentiates him from other living things is referred to as
Then He formed him and breathed
His Spirit into him and gave you hearing, sight and hearts. What little
thanks you show! (Surat as-Sajda: 9)