Communication and Target Location Systems
ECHOLOCATION OF BATS
Bats are very interesting creatures. The most intriguing of their abilities
is their extraordinary faculty of navigation.
The echolocative ability of bats was discovered through
a series of experiments conducted by scientists. Let us take a closer
look at these experiments in order to unveil the extraordinary design
of these creatures:26
In the first of these experiments, a bat was left in a completely dark
room. On one corner of the same room, a fly was placed as a prey for the
bat. From then on, everything taking place in the room was monitored with
night vision cameras. As the fly started to take into the air, the bat,
from the other corner of the room, swiftly moved directly to where the
fly was and captured it. Through this experiment, it was concluded that
the bats had a very sharp sense of perception even in complete darkness.
However, was this perception of the bat due to the sense of hearing? Or,
was it because it had night vision?
In order to answer these questions, a second experiment was carried out.
In a corner of the same room a group of caterpillars were placed and covered
under a sheet of newspaper. Once released, the bat did not lose any time
in lifting the newspaper sheet and eating the caterpillars. This proved
that the navigational faculty of the bat has no relationship with the
sense of vision.
Scientists continued with their experiments on bats: a new experiment
was conducted in a long corridor, on one side of which was a bat and on
the other a group of butterflies. In addition, a series of partition walls
were installed perpendicular to the sidewalls. In each partition, there
was a single hole just big enough for the bat to fly through. These holes,
however, were located in a different spot on each partition. That is,
the bat had to zigzag its way through them.
Scientist started their observations as soon as the bat was released
into the pitch darkness of the corridor. When the bat came to the first
Experiments show that bats are able to easily locate and fly through
the passageways in the walls even in complete darkness.
partition it located the hole easily and passed right through it. The
same was observed at all partitions: the bat appeared not only to know
where the partition was but also where exactly the hole was. After going
through the last hole, the bat filled its stomach with its catch.
Absolutely stunned by what they observed, the scientists
decided to conduct one last experiment in order to understand the sensitivity
of the bat's perception. The goal this time was to determine the bat's
perceptual limits more clearly. Again, a long tunnel was prepared and
steel wires of 3/128-inch (0.6 mm) diametre were hung from ceiling to
floor and placed randomly throughout. Much to the observers' astonishment,
the bat completed its journey without tripping over a single obstacle.
This flight showed that the bat is able to detect obstacles of as little
as 3/128-inch (0.6 mm) thickness. The research that followed revealed
that the bat's incredible perceptual faculty is linked to their echolocation
system. Bats radiate high frequency sounds in order to detect objects
around them. The reflection of these sounds, which are inaudible to humans,
enables the bat to get a "map" of its environment.27
That is, the bat's perception of a fly is made possible by the sounds
reflected back to the bat from the fly. An echolocating bat registers
each outgoing sound pulse and compares the originals to returning echoes.
The time lapsed between generating the outgoing sound and receiving an
incoming echo provides an accurate assessment of a target's distance from
the bat. For example, in the experiment where the bat caught the caterpillar
on the floor, the bat perceived the caterpillar and the shape of the room
by emitting high pitch sounds and detecting the reflected signals. The
floor reflected the sounds; hence, the bat determined its distance from
the floor. On the contrary, the caterpillar was about 3/16-inch (0.5 cm)
to 3/8-inch (1 cm) closer to the bat than was the ground. In addition,
it made minute moves and this, in turn, changed the reflected frequencies.
This way, a bat could detect the presence of a caterpillar on the floor.
It emitted about twenty thousand cycles in a second and could analyse
all the reflected sounds. Furthermore, while it carried out this task,
the bat itself travelled. Careful consideration of all these facts clearly
reveals the miraculous design in their creation.
The system used by bats to locate their prey is millions of times
more efficient and accurate than manmade radar and sonar. The table
above clearly illustrates these properties. "Echolocation efficiency
index" is range divided by the product weight times power times
target diametre. "Relative figure of merit" compares the echolocation
efficiency indexes with the bat as 1.
Another stunning feature of bats' echolocation is the fact that the hearing
of bats has been created such that they cannot hear any other sounds than
their own. The spectrum of frequencies audible to these creatures is very
narrow, which would normally create a great problem for the animal because
of the Doppler Effect. According to the Doppler Effect, if the source
of sounds and the receiver of sounds are both relatively stationary, the
receiver will detect the same frequency as the source emits. However,
if one or the other is moving, the detected frequency will be different
than the emitted frequency. In this case, the frequency of the reflected
sound could fall into the spectrum of frequencies inaudible to the bat.
The bat, therefore, faces the potential problem of not being able to hear
the echoes of its sounds from a fly that moves away.
The largest bat colony on
earth, with a population reaching 50 million, lives in America.
Freetails ride 60 mph (95 km/h), and fly as high as 10,000 feet
(3050 metres). It is so large that it can be easily observed by
It is discovered that bats wander in many different ways once they
leave their cave. However, they always fly back to it on a straight
route from wherever they are. It is still not clear how they are
able to navigate the return journey to the cave.
Nevertheless, this is never a problem for the bat because it adjusts
the frequency of sounds that it sends towards moving objects as if it
knows about the Doppler Effect. For instance, it sends the highest frequency
sounds to a fly moving away so that the reflections are not lost in the
inaudible section of the sound spectrum.
So, how does this adjustment take place?
In the brain of the bat, there are two kinds of neurons (nerve cells)
that control its sonar systems; one perceives the reflected ultrasound
and the other commands the muscles to produce echolocation calls. These
two neurons work in such complete synchrony that a minute deviation in
the reflected signals alerts the latter and provide the frequency of the
call to be in tune with the frequency of the echo. Hence, the pitch of
the bat's ultrasound changes in accordance with its surroundings for maximum
It is impossible to overlook the blow that this system deals to the explanations
of the theory of evolution through coincidence. The sonar system of bats
is extremely complex in nature and cannot be explained by evolution through
arbitrary mutations. The simultaneous existence of all components of the
system is vital for its functionality. The bat has not only to release
high pitch sounds but also to process reflected signals and to manoeuvre
and adjust its sonar squeals all at the same time. Naturally, all of this
cannot be explained by coincidence and can only be a sure sign of how
flawlessly Allah created the bat.
Scientific research further reveals new examples of
the miracles of creation in bats. Through each new miraculous discovery,
the world of science attempts to understand how these systems work. For
example, new research on bats has had very interesting findings in recent
years.29 A few scientists, who wanted to examine
a group of bats living in a certain cave, installed transmitters on some
of the group members. Bats were observed to leave the cave at night and
feed outside until dawn. Researchers kept detailed records of these journeys.
They discovered that some bats travelled as far as 30-45 miles (50-70
kilometres) from the cave. The most astonishing finding was the return
flight, which started shortly before sunrise. All bats flew straight back
to the cave from wherever they were. How can bats know where they are
and how far away they are from their caves?
We do not yet have detailed knowledge of how they navigate their return
flight. Scientists do not believe the auditory system to have a big impact
on the return journey. Reminding us that bats are completely blind to
light, scientists expect to encounter another surprising system. In short,
science continues to discover new miracles of creation in the bats.
The Electroshock Gun in the Electric Eel
The electric eels, whose lengths sometimes exceed 6.6 feet (2 metres),
live in the Amazon. Two-thirds of the bodies of these fish are covered
with electrical organs, which have around 5,000 to 6,000 electroplaques.
Thus, they can produce charges of 500 volts of electricity at about two
amperes. This is roughly equivalent to more power than a conventional
TV set utilises.
The faculty of generation of electricity has been given to these creatures
for purposes both of defence and offence. The fish uses this electricity
to kill its predators by giving them an electric shock. The electric shock
generated by this fish is enough to kill cattle from a distance of 6.6
feet (2 metres). The electricity-generating mechanism of this fish is
capable of engaging as quickly as in two to three thousandth of a second.
Such an immense power in a creature is a tremendous miracle of creation
in itself. The system is quite complex and cannot possibly be explained
through "step by step" development. That is because an electrical system
without full functionality could not bring the creature any advantage
in terms of survival. In other words, all components of the system must
have been created perfectly at the same time.
Fish that "See" By Means of an Electrical Field
Apart from fish armoured with potential electric charges, there are other
fish that generate low voltage signals of two to three volts. If these
fish do not use such weak signals for hunting or defence, for what could
they be possibly used?
Fish utilise these weak signals as a sensory organ.
Allah created a sensory system in the bodies of fish, which transmits
and receives these signals.30
The fish produces emissions of electricity in a specialised organ on
its tail. The electricity is emitted from thousands of pores on the creature's
back in the form of signals that momentarily create an electrical force
field surrounding it. Any object within this field refracts it, by which
the fish is informed of the size, conductivity and movement of the object.
On the body of fish, there are electrical sensors that continuously detect
the field just as do radar.
In short, these fish have a radar that transmits electrical signals and
interprets the alterations in the fields caused by objects interrupting
these signals around their bodies. When the complexity of radar used by
humans is considered, the wonderful creation in the body of fish becomes
Special Purpose Receptors
In the bodies of these fish, there are various types of receptors. Ampullary
receptors detect the low frequency electrical signals given off by other
swimming fish or insect larvae. These receptors are so sensitive that they
can even detect the magnetic field of the earth as well as gather information
on prey and predators.
The ampullary receptors cannot perceive the high frequency signals transmitted
by the fish. This is accomplished by a tubular receptors. These sensors
are sensitive to fish's own discharge and they work to map the surroundings.
By means of this system these fish can communicate and warn one another
against any threats. They also exchange information about species, age,
size and gender.
Signals Describing Gender Differences
Each species of electric fish has a unique signature signal. Furthermore,
there can be differences among the individuals of a species. However,
the general structure remains unchanged. Some details are particular to
the individual. When a female runs across a male fish it immediately senses
it and behaves accordingly.
Signals Describing Age
Electrical signals also carry information on the age of these fish. A
newly hatched fish bears a different signature from an adult. The signals
of the newly hatched fish maintain their characteristic until the fourteenth
day after its birth, when they change and become like the normal signals
of an adult. This plays a great role in regulating the complex relationships
of motherhood and fatherhood. A father can recognise his infant, and bring
it home to safety.
Living Activities Communicated Through Signals
Fish can also communicate information other than gender and age. In all
the species of electrical fish, frequency hikes transmit alerting messages.
For instance, an elephant fish (Mormyridae) normally transmits electrical
signals with a frequency of 10 Hz. i.e.10 vibrations per second, which
it can easily increase up to 100-120 Hz. A motionless elephant fish warns
opponents of an attack. This behaviour resembles the tightening of fists
before a fight. Most of the time, this warning is powerful enough to discourage
the opponent. After a fight, the wounded party, in an electrical silence,
stops sending signals for about 30 minutes. The fish that calms down or
leaves the fight usually remains motionless. The purpose behind this is
to make it harder for the others to find them. Another purpose is to avoid
hitting surrounding objects since they become electrically blind due to
lack of signals.
|An electric fish locates another one by means of
Special System for Non-Confusion of Signals
So then, what happens when an electric fish comes near another producing
the same signals? Does this not interfere with both their radars? Interference
would be a normal consequence here. However, they have been created with
a natural defence mechanism that prevents this confusion.
Experts name this system "Jamming Avoidance Response" or JAR for short.
When the fish encounters another at the same frequency, it changes its
frequency. This way confusion is avoided early and it, therefore, never
reaches any further.
All of this confirms the extremely complex systems
in electrical fish. The origin of these systems cannot be fully explained
by evolution. Likewise, Darwin in his book, The Origin of Species, admitted
the impossibility of explaining these creatures by his theory in a chapter
called "Difficulties of the Theory".31 Since Darwin,
the electrical fish have been shown to have much more complex systems
than he thought.
Just like all other forms of life, electric fish were also created flawlessly
by Allah as a demonstration for us of the existence and infinite knowledge
of Allah Who created them.
SONAR INSIDE A DOLPHIN'S SKULL
dolphin can distinguish between two different metal coins under water
in complete darkness and up to 2 miles (3 kilometres) away. Does it see
that far? No, it does this without seeing. It can make such accurate determinations
by means of the perfect design of an echolocation system inside its skull.
It gathers very detailed information on shape, size, speed and structure
of near objects.
It takes some time for a dolphin to master the skills needed to use such
a complicated system. While an experienced adult dolphin can detect most
objects through a few signals, a juvenile has to experiment for years.
Dolphins do not use their echolocation just to detect their surroundings.
Sometimes they group during feeding and emit high-pitched sounds so powerful
that they dazzle their prey, which are then ready to be picked up. An
adult dolphin produces sounds inaudible to humans (20,000 Hz. and above).
The focusing of soundwaves is done in several areas of the dolphin's head.
The melon, which is a fatty structure in the dolphin's forehead, serves
as an accaustical lens and focuses the clicks of the dolphin into a narrow
beam. Therefore, the dolphin can direct the clicks at will by moving its
head. It can direct these waves at will by moving its head.
The clicks immediately echo back when they hit any obstacle. The lower
jaw acts as a receptor, which transmits the signals back to the ear. On
each side of the lower jaw is a thin bony area, which is in contact with
a lipid material. Sound is conducted through this lipid material to the
auditory bullae, a large vesicle. Then the ear forwards the data to the
brain, which analyses and interprets the meanings. A similar lipid material
also exists in the sonar of whales. Different lipids (fatty compounds)
bend the ultrasonic (sound waves above our range of hearing) sound waves
traveling through them in different ways. The different lipids have to
be arranged in the right shape and sequence in order to focus the returning
sound waves. Each separate lipid is unique and different from normal blubber
lipids and is made by a complicated chemical process that requires a number
of different enzymes. This sonar system in dolphins could not possibly
have developed gradually, as claimed by the theory of evolution. That
is because only by the time the lipids would have evolved to their final
place and shape, could the creature have made use of this crucial system.
In addition, support systems like the lower jaw, the inner ear system
and the analysis centre in the brain would all have to be fully developed.
Echolocation clearly is an "irreducibly complex" system, which for it
to have evolved in phases is simply impossible. Hence, it is obvious that
the system is another flawless creation of Allah.
||An adult dolphin radiates sounds inaudible
to humans (20,000 Hz. and above). These waves are released from the
lobe, called "melon", in front of their heads. It can direct these
waves at will by moving its head. The sonar waves are immediately
reflected when they encounter any obstacle. Lower jaw acts as a receptor,
which transmits the signals back to the ear. Ear forwards the data
to the brain, which analyzes and interprets the meanings.
THE STORY OF A MOMENT'S COMMUNICATION
Everybody can remember a time when his or her eyes met with an acquaintance's
eyes and they greeted one another. Would you believe that this communication
of a brief moment has a long story?
Let's assume that on a certain afternoon two men are situated apart from
one another. In spite of their close friendship, they have not yet recognised
one another. One of these men, turning his head in the direction of his
friend, whom he has not yet recognised, starts a chain of biochemical
reactions: the light reflected from the body of his friend enters the
eye lens at a speed of ten trillion photons (light particles) per second.
Light travels through the lens and the fluid that fills the eyeball before
falling on the retina. On the retina there are about hundred million cells
called "cones" and "rods". Rods differentiate light from dark and cones
CORNEA AND IRIS
The cornea, one of the 40 basic components of the eye, is a transparent
layer located at the very front of the eye. It allows light through
as perfectly as does window glass. It is surely not a coincidence
that this tissue, found at nowhere else in the body, is situated
just at the right place, that is, the front surface of the eye.
Another important component of the eye is the iris, which gives
the eye its colour. Located right behind the cornea, it regulates
the amount of light admitted into the eye by contracting or expanding
the pupil - the circular opening in the middle. In bright light,
it immediately contracts. In dim light, it enlarges to allow more
light to enter the eye. A similar system has been adapted as a basis
for the design of cameras in order to adjust the amount of light
intake, but it is nowhere near as successful as the eye.
|The human eye functions through the
harmonious working of about forty different components. In the absence
of even one of these components would make the eye useless. For instance,
in the absence of even tear gland alone, the eye would eventually
dry out and cease to function. This system, which is irreducible to
simplicity, can never be explained by "gradual development" as is
claimed by evolutionists. This shows that the eye emerged in a complete
and perfect form, which means that it was created.
Depending on the external objects, varying light waves fall on different
places on the retina. Let's think about the moment the person in our assumed
situation sees his friend. Some features on his friend's face cast different
intensities of light on his retina e.g. darker facial features such as
eyebrows would reflect light at much lower intensities. Neighbouring cells
on the retina, however, receive stronger intensities of light reflected
from the forehead of his friend. All of his friend's facial features cast
waves of various intensities on the retina of his eye.
What kind of stimuli do these light waves provoke?
The answer to this question is, indeed, very complicated. Nevertheless,
the answer has to be examined to fully appreciate the extraordinary design
of the eye.
The Chemistry of Seeing
When photons hit the cells of the retina, they activate a chain reaction,
rather like a domino effect. The first of these domino pieces is a molecule
called "11-cis-retinal" that is sensitive to photons. When struck by a
photon, this molecule changes shape, which in turn changes the shape of
a protein called "rhodopsin" to which it is tightly bound. Rhodopsin then
takes a form that enables it to stick to another resident protein in the
cell called "transducin".
Prior to reacting with rhodopsin, tranducin is bound to another molecule
called GDP. When it connects with rhodopsin, transducin releases the GDP
molecule and is linked to a new molecule called GTP. That is why the complex
consisting of the two proteins (rhodopsin and transducin) and a smaller
chemical molecule (GTP) is called "GTP-transducinrhodopsin".
The new GTP-transducinrhodopsin complex can now very quickly bind to
another protein resident in the cell called "phosphodiesterase". This
enables the phosphodiesterase protein to cut yet another molecule resident
in the cell, called cGMP. Since this process takes place in the millions
of proteins in the cell, the cGMP concentration is suddenly reduced.
How does all this help with sight? The last element of this chain reaction
supplies the answer. The fall in the cGMP amount affects the ion channels
in the cell. The so-called ion channel is a structure composed of proteins
that regulate the number of sodium ions within the cell. Under normal
conditions, the ion channel allows sodium ions to flow into the cell,
while another molecule disposes of the excess ions to maintain a balance.
When the number of cGMP molecules falls, so does the number of sodium
ions. This leads to an imbalance of charge across the membrane, which
stimulates the nerve cells connected to these cells, forming what we refer
to as an "electrical impulse". Nerves carry the impulses to the brain
and "seeing" happens there.
In brief, a single photon hits a single cell and, through
a series of chain reactions, the cell produces an electrical impulse.
This stimulus is modulated by the energy of the photon, that is, the brightness
of light. Another fascinating fact is that all of the processes described
so far happen in no more than one thousandth of a second. Other specialised
proteins within the cells convert elements such as 11-cis-retinal, rhodopsin
and transducin back to their original states. The eye is under a constant
shower of photons, and the chain reactions within the eye's sensitive
cells enable it to percieve each one of these photons.32
|The first step in seeing is a small change created by light in the
structure of a minute molecule called 11-cis-retinal that causes a
change in a larger protein called rhodopsin to which it is attached.
The process of sight is actually a great deal more complicated than the
outline presented here would indicate. However, even this brief overview
is sufficient to demonstrate the extraordinary nature of the system. There
is such a complicated, finely calculated design inside the eye that chemical
reactions in the eye resemble the domino shows in the Guinness Book of
World Records. In these shows, tens of thousands of domino pieces are
so strategically placed that tipping the first piece activates the entire
system. In some areas of the domino chain, many apparatuses are installed
to start a new sequences of reactions, e.g. a winch carrying a piece to
another location and dropping it exactly at the place necessary for a
further sequence of reactions.
Of course, nobody thinks that these pieces have been "coincidentally"
brought to their precise locations by winds, quakes or floods. It is obvious
to everyone that each piece has been placed with great attention and precision.
The chain reaction in the human eye reminds us that it is nonsense to
even entertain the thought of the word "coincidence". The system is composed
of a number of different pieces assembled together in very delicate balances
and is a clear sign of "design". The eye is created flawlessly.
Click image to see larger photo
The figure above illustrates the biochemistry of vision. Symbols
indicate; RH=Rhodopsin, Rhk=Rhodopsin Kinase, A=Ariestin, GC=Guanylate
Cyclase, T=Tranducin, PDE=Phosphodiesterase.
Biochemist Michael Behe comments on the chemistry of the eye and the
theory of evolution in his book Darwin's Black Box:
Now that the black box of vision has been opened, it
is no longer enough for an evolutionary explanation of that power to consider
only the anatomical structures of whole eyes, as Darwin did in the nineteenth
century (and as popularizers of evolution continue to do today). Each
of the anatomical steps and structures that Darwin thought were so simple
actually involves staggeringly complicated biochemical processes that
can not be papered over with rhetoric.33
What has been explained so far is the first contact of photons, reflected
off a friend's body, with a man's eye. The retinal cells produce electrical
signals through complicated chemical processes as described above. In
these signals there exists such detail that the face of the man's friend
in the example, his body, hair colour and even a minute mark on his face
have been encoded. Now the signal has to be carried to the brain.
Nerve cells (neurons) stimulated by retinal molecules show a chemical
reaction as well. When a neuron is stimulated, protein molecules on its
surface change shape. This blocks the movement of the positively charged
sodium atoms. The change in the movement of the electrically charged atoms
creates a voltage differential within the cell, which results in an electrical
signal. The signal arrives at the tip of the nerve cell after travelling
a distance shorter than a centimetre. However, there is a gap between
two nerve cells and the electrical signal has to cross this gap, which
presents a problem. Certain special chemicals between the two neurons
carry the signal. The message is carried this way for about a quarter
to a fortieth of a millimetre. The electrical impulse is conducted from
one nerve cell to the next until it reaches the brain.
These special signals are taken to the visual cortex in the brain. The
visual cortex is composed of many regions, one on top of the other, about
1/10 inch (2.5 mm) in thickness and 145 square feet (13.5 square metres)
in area. Each one of these regions includes about seventeen million neurons.
The 4th region receives the incoming signal first. After a preliminary
analysis, it forwards the data to neurons in other regions. In any phase,
any neuron can receive a signal from any other neuron.
This way, the man's picture forms in the visual cortex of the brain.
However, the image now needs to be compared to the memory cells, which
is also done very smoothly. Not a single detail is overlooked. Furthermore,
if the friend's perceived face looks slightly more pale than normal then
the brain activates the thought, "why is my friend's face so pale today?"
That's how two separate miracles happen within a period of time less
than a second, which we refer to as "seeing" and "recognising".
The input that arrives in hundreds of millions of light particles reaches
the mind of the person, is processed, compared to the memory and enables
the man to recognise his friend.
A greeting follows recognition. A person deduces the reaction to be given
to acquaintances from within the memory cells in less than a second. For
example, he determines that he needs to say "greetings" upon which the
brain cells controlling facial muscles will command the move that we know
as a "smile". This command is similarly transferred through nerve cells
and triggers a series of other complicated processes.
Simultaneously, another command is given to the vocal cords in the throat,
tongue and the lower jaw and the "greetings" sound is produced by the
muscle movements. Upon release of the sound, air molecules start travelling
towards the man to whom the greeting is sent. The auricle gathers these
sound waves, which travel at approximately twenty feet (six metres) per
one fiftieth of a second.
The auricle is designed to collect and focus sounds into the auditory
canal. The inside surface of the auditory canal is covered with
cells and hairs that secrete a thicle waxy product to protect the
ear against external dirt. At the end of the ear canal towards the
start of the middle ear is the eardrum. Beyond the eardrum there
are three small bones called the hammer, anvil and stirrup. The
eustachian tube functions to balance air pressure in the middle
ear. At the end of the middle ear is the cochlea that has an extremely
sensitive hearing mechanism and is filled with a special fluid.
The vibrating air inside both ears of that person rapidly travels to
his middle ear. The eardrum, 0.30 inch (7.6 millimetre) in diametre, starts
vibrating as well. This vibration is then transferred to the three bones
in the middle ear, where they are converted into mechanical vibrations
that travel to the inner ear. They then create waves in a special fluid
inside a snail shell-like structure called the cochlea.
Inside the cochlea, various tones of sound are distinguished. There are
many strings of varying thickness inside the cochlea just as in the musical
instrument, the harp. The sounds of the man's friend literally play their
harmonies on this harp. The sound of "greetings" starts from a low pitch
and rises. First, the thicker cords are rattled and then the thinner ones.
Finally, tens of thousands of little bar-shaped objects transfer their
vibrations to the auditory nerve.
Now the sound "greetings" becomes an electrical signal, which quickly
travels to the brain through the auditory nerves. This journey inside
the nerves continues until reaching the hearing centre in the brain. As
a result, in the person's brain, the majority of the trillions of neurons
become busy evaluating the visual and audio data gathered. This way, the
person receives and perceives his friend's greeting. Now he returns the
greeting. The act of speaking is realised through perfect synchronisation
of hundreds of muscles within a minute portion of a second: the thought
that is designed in the brain as a response is formulated into language.
The brain's language centre, known as Broca's area, sends signals to all
the muscles involved.
TRAVELLING OF THE SOUND FROM EAR TO BRAIN
It is He Who has created hearing,
sight and hearts for you. What little thanks you show! (Surat al-Muminun:
The ear is such a complex wonder of design that it alone nullifies
the explanations of the theory of evolution in regards to a creation
based on "coincidence". The hearing process in the ear is made possible
by a completely irreducibly complex system. Sound waves are first
collected by the auricle (1) and then hit the eardrum (2). This
sets the bones in the middle ear (3) vibrating. Thus sound waves
are translated into mechanical vibrations, which vibrate the so-called
"oval window" (4), which in turn sets the fluid inside the cochlea
(5) in motion. Here, the mechanical vibrations are transformed into
nerve impulses which travel to the brain through the vestibular
There is an extremely complex mechanism inside the cochlea. The
cochlea (enlarged figure in the middle) has some canals (7), which
are filled with fluid. The cochlear canal (8) contains the "organ
of corti" (9) (enlarged figure on far right), which is the sense
organ of hearing. This organ is composed of "hair cells" (10). The
vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea are transmitted to these
cells through the basilar membrane (11), on which the organ of corti
is situated. There are two types of hair cells, inner hair cells
(12a)and outer hair cells (12b). Depending on the frequencies of
the incoming sound, these hair cells vibrate differently which makes
it possible for us to distinguish the different sounds we hear.
Outer hair cells (13) convert detected
sound vibrations into electrical impulses and conduct them to the
vestibular nerve (14). Then the information from both ears meet
in the superior olivary complex (15). The organs involved in the
auditory pathway are as follows: Inferior colliculus (16), medial
geniculate body (17), and finally the auditory cortex (18).34
The blue line inside the brain shows the route for high pitches
and the red for low pitches. Both cochleas in our ears send signals
to both hemispheres of the brain.
As is clear, the system enabling us to hear is comprised of different
structures that have been carefully designed in the minutest detail.
This system could not have come into existence "step by step", because
the lack of the smallest detail would render the entire system useless.
It is, therefore, very obvious that the ear is another example of
First, the lung provides "hot air". Hot air is the raw material of speech.
The primary function of this mechanism is the inhalation of oxygen-rich
air into the lungs. Air is taken in through the nose, and it travels down
the trachea into the lungs. The oxygen in the air is absorbed by the blood
in the lungs. The waste matter of blood, carbon dioxide, is given out.
The air, at this point, becomes ready to leave the lungs.
The air returning from the lungs passes through the vocal cords in the
throat. These cords are like tiny curtains, which can be "drawn" by the
action of the small cartilages to which they are attached. Before speech,
the vocal cords are in an open position. During speech they are brought
together and caused to vibrate by the exhaled air passing through them.
This determines the pitch of an individual's voice: the tenser the cords,
the higher the pitch.
The air is vocalised by passing through the cords and
reaches to the surface via the nose and mouth. The person's mouth and
nose structure adds personal properties unique to him. The tongue draws
near to and away from the palate and the lips take various shapes. Throughout
these processes, many muscles work at great speed.35
The person's friend compares the sound he hears to others in his memory.
By comparing, he can immediately tell if it is a familiar sound. Therefore,
both parties recognise and greet each other.
The three bones in the middle ear function as a bridge between
the eardrum and the inner ear. These bones, which are connected
to one another by joints, amplify sound waves, which are then transmitted
to the inner ear. The pressure wave that is created by the contact
of the stirrup with the membrane of the oval window travels inside
the fluid of the cochlea. The sensors triggered by the fluid start
the "hearing" process.
All the above takes place during two friends noticing and greeting one
another. All of these extraordinary processes happen at incredible speeds
with stunning precision, of which we are not even aware. We see, hear
and speak so very easily as if it is a very simple thing. However, the
systems and processes that make them possible are so unimaginably complex.
|In order to facilitate speech, not only do the vocal cords, nose,
lungs and air passages have to work in harmony, but also the muscle
systems that support these organs. Sounds created during speech are
produced by air passing through the vocal cords.
Vocal cords are comprised of flexible cartilages tied to muscles
on the skeleton. When the muscles are at rest, the cords are open
(left). The cords close during speech (below). The tenser the cords,
the higher the pitch.
||The operation of the vocal cords has been photographed
by means of high-speed cameras. All of the different positions seen
above take place within less than one tenth of a second. Our speech
is made possible through the flawless design of the vocal cords.
This complex system is full of examples of unparalleled design that the
theory of evolution cannot explain. The origins of vision, hearing and
thinking cannot be explained by the trust of evolutionists in "coincidences".
On the contrary, it is obvious that all of them have been created and
given to us by our Creator. While the human cannot even understand the
working mechanism of systems that enable him to see, hear and think, the
infinite wisdom and power of Allah Who created all these from nothing
is apparently obvious.
In Qur'an, Allah invites humans to ponder this and to be thankful:
Allah brought you out of your mothers' wombs knowing
nothing at all, and gave you hearing, sight and hearts so that perhaps
you would show thanks. (Surat an-Nahl: 78)