The Creation of a Human Being from a cell
The Transformation Begins: The Three Stages of the Baby
in the Womb
As is obvious from what has been said so far, in the period of time between
the formation of the sperm and the egg and their meeting, every event
that occurs is a miracle. The changes that occur after these two cells
unite, and the all-encompassing preparations made in the woman's body
will show us other wondrous occurrences.
They do not render to God the
homage due to Him. Yet God is Powerful and Almighty.(Qur'an,
Even within hours of the time when it is fertilised by the sperm, the
egg divides and grows very quickly. Today we know that the baby undergoes
three stages of embryonic development while it is in the mother's womb.
But this information, which it has taken long years of research to attain
with the help of modern technology, was made known in the Qur'an 1400
years ago. These scientific facts are revealed in this verse:
... He creates you stage by stage in your mothers' wombs
in a threefold darkness. That is God, your Lord. Sovereignty is His. There
is no god but Him. So what has made you turn away from Him? (Qur'an, 39:
It will be noticed that this verse shows that three distinct stages occur
in the development of a human being while it is in the mother's womb.
Indeed, modern biology has established that the baby in the mother's womb
does go through three different stages of development, just as is stated
in this verse. This is a matter of basic information in all the books
on embryology required to be read as textbooks today in medical faculties.
For example, Basic Human Embryology, a standard basic work of reference
on embryology, makes the following statement:
The life in the uterus has three stages:
(i) pre-embryonic: first two and a half weeks; (ii) embryonic: until the
end of the eighth week, and (iii) fetal: from the eighth week to labour.20
These stages comprise the various developmental phases of the baby. The
salient features of these three stages can be summarized as follows:
- Pre-embryonic stage: In this first stage the zygote (the newly fertilised
cell) multiplies. Within the first three weeks, after it has become a
cluster of cells, it embeds itself in the wall of the uterus. As the cells
continue to multiply, they form three layers.
- The embryonic stage: The second stage lasts a total of five and a half
weeks, during which the baby is called the embryo. In this stage the basic
organs and systems of the body take shape from the cell layers.
- The foetal stage: Entering the third stage of pregnancy, the embryo
is now called the foetus. This stage begins from the eighth week of pregnancy
and continues to birth. In this stage, as distinct from the earlier ones,
the face, hands and feet of the foetus become distinguishable and it takes
the external appearance of a human being. At the beginning of this stage,
all the organs of the 3 cm. foetus are in place. This stage lasts for
thirty weeks and development continues until the week of birth.
The stages that we have briefly outlined here and the wondrous developments
that happen in each stage will be explained in more detail in the pages
The First Cell Begins to Multiply
The cell containing 46 chromosomes that is formed from the union of the
sperm and the egg is the first cell of a new human being that will open
its eyes to the world in nine months. The first and single cell which
contains the plan for the whole body is called the "zygote".
The first cell division happens 24 hours after the sperm and the egg
unite. These two newly formed cells are identical to each other. With
this, the first day of the 9-month period of life in the mother's womb
begins. Now there are not one but two cells in the mother's womb. Later
this number will increase to four and continue in this way as the division
The cells in the cell cluster in the fallopian tube continue to divide
and grow and move towards the place where they will spend the next nine
months. This is the mother's womb (uterus).
with the sperm, the egg cell begins to divide. In the first
division 2 cells are formed; these two cells divide internally
and within a short time a cluster of cells is formed. As a result
of the transformations undergone by this cluster, the vital
structures of the baby are formed. After the period the baby
spends in its mother's womb, it is ready in every way for life
in the outside world.
||The heart, nerves,
spine, arteries, lungs, teeth, bones, taste-buds-all these vital
parts are formed while the embryo goes through the stages in
the mother's womb. For example, at the end of the third month,
the sex of the baby has been determined. The parts of the brain
have been formed. At the end of the eighth month, virtually
all parts of the baby's body have been formed.
In this stage, the necessary changes occur in the uterus. Blood rushes
into the uterus and makes it strong and resilient. As we mentioned in
the previous section, the corpus luteum in the ovary increases its secretion
and informs the body that pregnancy has begun. In the meantime, the zygote
moves with a swimming motion towards the uterus and begins to send a biochemical
signal containing the message, "I'm here!" These messages make the mother's
body prepared to ensure the presence of the salt, iron, blood and vitamins
needed by the foetus. At the same time, the biochemical message that the
zygote has secreted (the hCG hormone), reaches the mother's ovary and
causes another hormone to be secreted there which prevents another period
of ovulation (menstrual period) in the mother's body.22
The zygote is still composed of a few cells. The fact that it knows where
it is and immediately sends signals relevant to the 9-month period that
will follow is an extraordinary thing. How does the zygote know to whom
it will send the message? How do the various organelles that receive the
message know that it comes from a microscopic piece of flesh that they
have never encountered before, and begin to help it by preparing an environment
in which it will live? After all, the hormone secreted by the zygote is
composed of molecules; so, how do the cells, in the place where these
molecules are received, know what these molecules intend by arriving at
that place? When a message is sent to a human being in a language that
he understands, it is possible for him to read and understand it, and
to make a decision on the basis of what he has understood. But in this
case, the message consists of a hormone composed of a few molecules; what
sends the message is a collection of cells; what receives the message
is a slightly larger collection of cells. It is certainly a miracle that
cells read and understand messages (hormones) that come to them just as
a human being understands a message he reads.
Moreover, how does this zygote know what materials it will need in the
course of its growth?
For example, think of yourself. What do you need to eat in order for
your body to become strong? What minerals do you need to take? You can
only learn this by studying scientific work that has been done in this
area. What effects do potassium, phosphorus and calcium have on your body?
From what food can you get these things? When should you take this food
and how much should you take? These are things that you cannot know without
consulting an expert. You, as a thinking, seeing, intelligent and feeling
person, with the faculty of speech, can only know these things by seeking
assistance; whereas a minute cluster of cells knows what it needs, and
that it is necessary to produce it if that need is to be met; it knows
who can produce what is necessary and that a signal must be sent to begin
the process of production. Moreover, in spite of the fact that it has
been in the body for only a few days, it knows how to send chemical information
and it calculates that various organs in the body are capable of receiving
this chemical information.
Certainly it cannot be said that a cluster of cells has this extraordinary
information and devises a plan on the basis of it. There is a supreme
power which makes these cells perform all their wondrous functions and
creates them in a way that enables them to do their work. This power belongs
to God, the only Ruler of the heavens and the earth. As a proof to us
of His eternal power, God has inspired microscopic, unconscious, living
cells, in a way that the human mind could never comprehend, to perform
their complex work to perfection.
The Cell Cluster Begins to Move
The outer appearance of a mass of cells formed
by cell division is like a piece of flesh.
The cell cluster moves towards the secure place prepared for it and continues
to divide from day to day. Every 30 hours a division takes place. Dividing
exponentially by 2, 4, 8, 16, etc., the cells gradually come to form a
small cluster; moving together with unsuccessful sperm cells, it goes
slowly from the fallopian tube towards the uterus.
If you magnify the fallopian tube and examine what happens in it, you
will see what appears to be the bottom of the ocean. This cluster of cells
can continue on its way because of the undulating movement in the fallopian
tube. This movement, which had assured the fertilisation of the egg by
pushing the sperm towards it, this time carries the egg to the uterus.
Small hairs (cilia) found on the surface of the cells of the fallopian
tube move in the same direction. In this way, they carry the egg cell
as if carrying a very precious object, towards the place where it must
Here, as if all the elements involved in this function have received
a command from a common centre, they begin at once to work towards the
same goal. This command is such that very different areas of the body
perceive it and carry it out.
When we look at the motion in the fallopian tube, we get the impression
that we are looking at the bottom of the ocean. (small picture)
The tiny hairs in the fallopian tube (above) make an undulating
motion, which helps the egg move towards the uterus.
While it is in the fallopian tube, the cluster of cells goes through
a number of stages of division. A cluster of about 100 cells enters the
uterus. But in order to effect this division, the cells must be nourished.
This requirement can be regarded as an important aspect of the miracle
of human creation. God has created the fallopian tube so as to respond
to the needs of the zygote. In this waiting period, secretory cells alternate
with the small hair-like cells lining the fallopian tube. The secretory
cells produce large quantities of secretions including organic molecules,
ions and water for the nutrition of the zygote.24
"…the uterus increases in size to protect the embryo. The fallopian tubes
do what is necessary to nourish the cells…" In sentences like these we
have spoken up to this point about the tissues and organs that protect
the cell cluster that formed after the egg and the sperm united, take
the appropriate measures to ensure its nourishment and work to accommodate
these cells. It must not be forgotten that these organs and tissues are
also composed of cells. So, how can it be that one cell can sense the
need of another and, at exactly the right time, undergo the changes required
to nourish and protect it?
When we consider this question, the first answer that comes to mind will
be that there is an intelligence that controls the cells. No one will
think of a fairy tale in which "one day the cells begin to undergo a change
by chance and that afterwards these cells somehow become able to produce
the nourishment required by the zygote, then go on to sustain these wondrous
occurrences that happen in all women." It is clear that anyone who makes
this claim will be accused of fabrication. The preparations that the uterus
makes to accommodate the embryo and the particular characteristics of
the fallopian tubes which allow them to provide nourishment for the zygote,
are operations which exist only in the knowledge of God. Each one of these
things is a manifestation of the compassion and mercy that God has for
every living thing in His perfect creation.
A Safe Haven Created for the Embryo
uterus is a hollow, muscular organ that weighs about 50 grams.
Certainly this is not big enough for a baby to develop in. Therefore,
the structure of the uterus must undergo a transformation. During
pregnancy, the size of the uterus grows steadily, increasing to
about 1,100 grams by the end of pregnancy. Because of this characteristic,
the uterus attains the most suitable condition for the growth
and development of the fertilised egg and for the emergence of
a completely formed human being. Besides this, being exactly in
the centre of the mother's pelvic cavity, it shelters the baby
and protects it in the course of its development.1
In the Qur'an, God reveals the protective
quality of the mother's womb and reminds us once again of His
compassion for humanity:
We created man from the purest kind
of clay; then placed him, a living gem, in a secure receptacle.
(Qur'an, 23: 12-13)
1-Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, Textbook
of Medical Physiology, 10th ed., Harcourt International Ed., PA,
2000, p. 950
The Cell Cluster Attaches to the Uterus
Say: "Am I to desire any but God as my Lord,
when He is the Lord of all things?" What each self earns is for
itself alone. No burden-bearer can bear another's burden. In the
end you will all return to your Lord, and He will resolve for you
your disputes. (Qur'an, 6: 164)
In order for the pregnancy to continue in a healthy way, the cell cluster
must find an appropriate place to lodge. A place must be chosen that affords
protection and that has the characteristics that will be able to facilitate
the birth nine months later. Moreover, this place must also be close to
the mother's blood vessels which will provide nourishment for the baby.
The most suitable place for this operation is the wall of the uterus.
The cell cluster, which advances towards the uterus from the fallopian
tube, moves with an awareness of what it is doing. It is in the fallopian
tube for 3-4 days but does not attempt to stop and lodge at any point
there. It knows that before it reaches the uterus, no place where it attaches
itself will receive it or allow it to survive. It advances towards the
uterus; it finds in the walls of the uterus a place where the blood vessels
are plentiful and lodges there. As a seed planted in the ground sprouts
and spreads its root, so the cell cluster continues to grow, and moving
deeper into the tissues that will nourish it, produces for itself new
channels for that nourishment.
Here it is useful to notice an important point. It is a wonder that the
cell cluster is able to choose the most appropriate place for itself.
In his book, Beginning Life, G. Flanagan also asks "How does the cluster
make such an astonishingly "forward-looking" selection?"
The point to which Flanagan draws attention is very important. In order
to illustrate this importance, let us first consider an example. Imagine
a baby that is just beginning to walk. You place this baby in a building
which is millions of times larger than itself, and which it has never
seen before; then you expect that the baby can find a room in this building
with the most suitable environment for itself. Could a small baby do such
a thing? Certainly it could not. If this feat is impossible for a baby
which has not yet reached the age where it can use its mental abilities,
with no experience or accumulation of knowledge, how much more impossible
is it for a piece of flesh, a few centimetres in size, wandering in the
dark void of a body, to find the most suitable, most comfortable and most
secure place for itself?
Moreover, this cell cluster is not even a human being yet. Remember that
what we refer to here is a piece of flesh composed of at the most a few
hundred cells (for the moment), with no ears, eyes, brain, hands or arms.
But this cell mass, demonstrating an exceptional recognition ability,
lodges itself in the uterus as the most suitable place for itself.
The wonders of human creation do not stop here. In every stage of the
formation of a human being, there is a wonderful chain of miraculous occurrences.
We have spoken about how the fertilised egg cell multiplies and how it
finds the place needed for its development. But at this stage, another
question confronts us: This cell cluster, composed of cells totally similar
to one another, has no special anchor or other similar organ to allow
it to attach itself to a place. How then can it attach itself to the wall
of the uterus?
The way the cell cluster attaches itself to the wall of the uterus is
part of an interesting and highly complex system. The cells in the outer
layer of the cell cluster secrete an enzyme called hyaluronidase. The
particularity of this enzyme (as we mentioned before in the case of the
sperm) is to break down the acid layer (hyaluronic acid) in the tissues
of the wall of the uterus. This enables the cells which form the cell
cluster to dissolve the uterine tissue and enter the uterus. Some cells
in the cell cluster dissolve the cells of the uterus, penetrate deeper
into it and embed themselves securely in the wall.
As we said earlier, the fact that a cell mass can find the place most
suited to itself and determine that it is necessary to attach itself to
that place is really an amazing thing. By its behaviour, this tiny collection
of cells shows the ability to calculate its needs and to act according
to this calculation. Yet, it is even more amazing that it knows how to
make this attachment and that a few cells have the special ability to
achieve it. It is certainly not possible that these cells, by using their
intelligence and its will, analyse the hyaluronic acid on the wall of
the uterus and begin the secretion of the hyaluronidase enzyme which will
As we explained earlier, unless a person has had special training in
chemistry, he cannot give an explanation for this. However, a few cells
have this chemical information and use it to perform their vital function
in producing what is required to sustain their existence. Moreover, this
extraordinary function is performed, not by a single cell alone, but by
the cells that have formed every human being, past and present, that has
As can be seen in what we have said on this point, in the formation of
the cell cluster which will later form the embryo and in the changes undergone
by the cells which shelter it, there is a definite and conscious plan.
At exactly the right time, the cells which compose the fallopian tube
undergo a change and, at a precise moment, the cells which surround the
outer surface of the cell cluster begin to secrete an enzyme (hyaluronidase).
This conscious plan shows that these functions that occur in the human
body are controlled by a superior intelligence.
It is He Who forms you in the womb however He wills.
There is no god but Him, the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Qur'an, 3: 6)
Cells That Perform Various Functions
On the eighth day, the cells begin to differentiate and
they arrange themselves into two distinct groupings, an inner and an outer
one. The inner cell mass (embryoblast), forms the cells that the embryo
will possess throughout its whole life. The outer group of cells (trophoblast),
is composed of the cells that assist the human being in its life in the
mother's womb, that is, for nine months until its birth.
The Attachment of the Embryo to the Uterus is
a Miracle of the Qur'an
When we examine the verses in the Qur'an that deal
with the attachment of the embryo to the uterus, we see one of the
greatest wonders of the Qur'an. In the Qur'an, while referring to
the embryo's attachment to the uterus and the beginning of its development,
God uses the word "alaq":
Recite in the Name of your Lord Who created man
from alaq. Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous. (Qur'an,
The word "alaq" in Arabic means "something that
clings, a leech-like substance". The Qur'an came down to us 1400
years ago and the fact that God uses this word to describe the development
of the embryo in the mother's womb is one if its wonders. The fact
that this knowledge, which could not have been discovered by the
science of that period, was revealed centuries ago in the Qur'an
confirms once again that it is a revelation from God, the Lord of
all the worlds.
In the first picture, we see a one-week-old cell
cluster looking for a place in the uterus. After finding a suitable
place, the cell cluster dissolves the tissue of the uterine wall
and embeds itself in it. (2-3) The embryo securely attaches itself
to the uterine wall and begins to take from it the oxygen and other
nutrients that it needs. (4)
The inner cell mass separates itself from the outer group of cells that
will serve it throughout the nine months. The remaining region will become
the umbilical cord providing the connection between the embryo and the
placenta that will develop later.
At about the same time that the placenta begins to form, the inner cell
mass flattens and develops into three layers of cells in what is called
the "embryonic disc". The three types of cell layers are the ectoderm,
the mesoderm, and the endoderm. In a process called differentiation, cells
from each layer move to certain areas of the embryonic disc and then fold
over to form tubes or clusters. These tubes and clusters develop into
various tissues and organs of the body.23
Cells from the outermost layer, the ectoderm, form the brain, spinal
cord, the sense organs and the lens of the eye. Moreover, this layer will
form the epidermis, the sweat glands, tooth enamel, hair and nails. The
innermost layer of the embryo (the endoderm) will cause the development
of the organs that compose the digestive and respiratory systems (liver,
lungs, pancreas, etc.) and the related glands (thyroid, thymus, etc.).
The third layer (the mesoderm) is formed between these two layers. From
this layer are formed the heart, muscles, bones, tendons, kidneys, glands,
blood vessels, and reproductive organs. The lymphatic vessels and the
epithelia (surface, or lining, tissues) which cover the most internal
and external surfaces of the body and its organs also develop from this
layer. The cells which compose all the tissues of the body are formed
from these stem cells which develop from one of these layers.
||From stem cells come all
the approximately 200 kinds of cells in the human body. (1) Identical
stem cells suddenly begin to differentiate from other cells. With
this differentiation, the tissues of the body are formed from stem
cells. Fat cells which provide energy (2), cells which heal wounds
(3) and blood vessel cells (4) are a few of these tissues.
It is very important to think about the meaning of the last sentence
of the above paragraph, and to consider well the significance of what
it says, because only in this way can we begin to conceive of the extraordinary
development of a human being. The fact that all the elements that constitute
the human body (organs, tissues, systems, blood vessels, blood, etc.)
develop from the three kinds of layers that make up the embryo will lead
a thinking person to find the answer to the question: Where does this
supreme intelligence that the cells possess come from?
In the meantime, there are some details that we must not lose sight of
and that make these changes even more extraordinary. For example, in the
course of the development of a human being, there is a perfect harmony
among these three layers of cells. In order for the approximately 200
kinds of cells in the body to be produced from three kinds of cells, a
definite sequence and timing is required. For example, the sequence of
events in the differentiation of the blood cells and the skin cells is
very different in each case. This is a remarkable phenomenon which raises
a number of questions.
The Planned Activity of Cells which Gives Shape to The
Body: How Does It Happen?
Now the cluster of cells has become an embryo, which means to "teem within."
If we could watch the cells during this period, we would encounter much
activity. Cells similar to one another divide and multiply at a certain
time and some of these cells begin to take on a different structure from
the others. This process is not evident at first, but with every passing
day, it becomes clear that the purpose of this activity is to bring into
being, quickly and according to a program, the functions indispensable
for the construction of the human body. All the cells, very much like
workers dispatched to a job, go to work in groups. Later, the groups of
cells which are to form the same organ join one another to form one mass
and prepare to form the organs. As a result of this intense activity,
some cells will become bone cells, while others will become skin and muscle
The bone cells gather at the places where the bones must be. The muscle
cells congregate at the places where the muscles must be. Some cells go
to even deeper places and begin to form the internal organs. Some form
the brain, some the eyes and others the blood vessels. In time, new processes
are added; for example, the movement of the cells to their destined places
and the construction of some organs by the programmed death of certain
cells, etc. In short, in the course of this differentiation, a perfect
strategy is employed in which the cells perform their activity according
to a definite plan.
The inspiration as to how this preparation is to be made is introduced
separately into every group of cells. The information written in the DNA
of every cell is the same. But only when every cell group uses this information
in the program which has been placed within the ambit of its own instinct,
can they form the special structures needed for the organs to perform
their functions. Besides this kind of differentiation, constant division
causes their numbers to increase. This perfect organization never falls
into anarchy. Because of these preparations made for the formation of
the heart, eye, brain, arm, leg and other organs, the body slowly takes
Above we see a few of the various cells of the
body. As a result of the multiplication of the initially identical
cells, the approximately 200 kinds of cells in the body are formed.
Despite the fact that the information written in their DNA is the
same, every kind of cell uses only the information appropriate to
itself. No confusion arises. Bone cells never try to form an eye
or any other organ; the nerve cells do not interfere with the red
blood cells. Each one knows very well where and how it will function.
It is Almighty God, the Ruler of all, Who ensures this flawless
organization and inspires the cells of the body as to what they
have to do.
So far so good, but who gives the command to these cells which all arise
out of one single essence? How can cells, which have no intelligence,
awareness or feeling, understand this command and put it into effect?
Scientists have determined that the plan which dictates the differentiation
of the cells and their lodging in the appropriate place in the body is
written in the DNA. But this raises the question: Who wrote this magnificent
plan so perfectly in this microscopic information bank hidden in the nucleus
Furthermore, who causes the cells to read this plan written in the DNA
and to apply it without error? How is it that millions of different cells
can find the information relevant to themselves in an immense information
bank in the DNA and change their structure according to it?
It is God Who created
the seven heavens and of the earth the same number, His Command
descending through all of them, so that you might know that God
has power over all things and that God encompasses all things
in His knowledge.
(Qur'an, 65: 12)
For example, consider the cells which form the eyes: How can they know
when the pupil is fully formed? How can they know how to structure the
retina, the eye muscles, and the lens and how to give them their appropriate
size? And how do they know at what point to stop these processes?
Or, how do cells which have never seen a liver, kidneys or a pancreas
know the particularities of these organs and change their structure in
accordance with this knowledge?
Moreover, when these cells change their structure according to the organs
that they are going to form, they take many factors into consideration.
For example, a cell which changes to become a brain cell must take account
of the nervous system, the nourishment of the brain, the oxygen supply,
the necessity of establishing a connection among all the nerves in the
body; it must also distinguish the parts of the brain that see, hear and
feel. Other cells take into consideration the possibility that the brain
might be damaged and surround it; they evaluate the negative factors that
could occur in the birth process and form structure according to these
considerations. This is all very well, but how can cells display such
"prescience" in their behaviour?
All these questions show that human birth is a great miracle, and the
theory of evolution has at this point reached an impasse. No evolutionist
can explain the extraordinary cooperation that occurs among the genes
in the DNA as the cells form the organs and give shape to the body. The
fact that genes, which we may define as a collection of unconscious atoms,
cannot organize by chance such a conscious harmony is so evident that
evolutionists generally prefer not to broach this subject at all.
Hoimar von Ditfurth, A German evolutionist scientist, has this to say
about the miraculous development that happens in the mother's womb:
How a single egg cell divides to form so numerous differentiated cells,
and the perfect natural communication and the cooperation between these
cells top the events that amaze scientists.26
And G. Flanagan, the author of Beginning Life writes:
How is such far-reaching organization achieved? What makes the cells
act as if they know where to go, and what to be, and what to do when they
get there? And also act in such harmony with their fellow cells?27
In the answer he has tried to give to these questions, Flanagan is far
from being able to explain these wondrous occurrences.
These big questions take us into the world of the almost infinitesimally
small molecules within the cells, primarily those that compose the genes
and make up the genetic programme. Since the advent of molecular biology,
it is for the first time becoming possible to detect and describe some
of these processes. "Life's book, it seemed, was suddenly laid open…",
although only some fascinating pages of it. We are still far from understanding
the whole story.
It is clear that cells work together so well because there is a continual
molecular dialogue between them and they adapt their intrinsic genetic
instructions accordingly. The instructions are held in the genes in the
form of the so-called genetic-code, spelled out in the arrangement of
molecules, like letters of a special alphabet. The genetic programme for
the baby, spelled out in that code, was achieved on the first day in the
union of parent cells. From then on, every time any cell divided and gave
rise to two new cells, a precise replica of all the genes was made and
passed along to each new cell. Therefore every cell of the body carries
exactly the same genes, and holds the full genetic programme.
Every cell might simply go on to produce clones of itself, all with the
same destination and function, if the full programme were to be active
all the time. What makes for the great variety of cells produced, and
for their dispersal to all their different destinations, is the fact that
genes can switch on and switch off. Not all of them are operative all
the time. This happens in response to signals from fellow cells as they
all fit themselves into the elaborate programme of development.
These events may be visualized as an exacting building task requiring
close co-operation. Each knows the grand plan, each gives out signals,
and in turn sensitively responds to the signals from others to become
integrated into the whole project. The cells of the embryo work in a comparable
way, in companionable agreement, with genes switched on and off as required.28
As can be understood from the above explanations, the fact that the cells
differentiate from one another and take on completely different functions
is said to indicate that there is a "genetic program" which causes them
to act within a determined plan. It is true that a perfect program is
implanted in every cell, but the important thing is this: Who created
this program and implanted it in the cells? The program we speak of here
is not like an ordinary computer program. By applying this program, the
cells bring into being a human person who has within himself millions
of interrelated complex organic structures: a person who can hear, see,
feel, think, make decisions, experience joy, appreciate beauty and who
can study his own cells and DNA, and draw conclusions from his investigations.
Moreover, it is certainly a miracle that the masses of protein which we
call cells can understand such a program, act according to it, become
aware of what is required and complete every stage perfectly.
Richard Dawkins, a well-known modern evolutionist, is at a loss to explain
how, in the formation of a human being, the genes which contain the human
genetic program act together with such a degree of cooperation.
Embryonic development is controlled by an interlocking web of relationships
so complex that we had best not contemplate it.29
Dawkins has understood that the relations among the genes responsible
for the miraculous creation of a human being and the extraordinary abilities
demonstrated by these genes could not have come about by chance, that
it is not possible to account for such a complex system by the mechanisms
of evolution, and has thus made such a confession. But he still misses
a very important point: In the same way, it is impossible that, in the
chain of miracles that produces a baby, not one bit of what is required
to make this baby, not one single cell, has come into being by chance.
Within a period of nine months, one cell formed in the mother's reproductive
organs turns into a seeing, hearing, feeling, breathing, thinking human
being, and this transformation occurs according to a plan perfect in its
every detail. Moreover, this miracle has gone on continuously with the
same perfection for countless numbers of years.
According to the claims of evolutionists, this is all due to chance;
for them, this miracle comes about as a result of the decision of unconscious
atoms which produce the human cells. They claim that one day, the atoms
suddenly decide to come together and produce organs that they had never
seen or known before. They cling so blindly to their illogical claims
that they believe that each of these unconscious atoms decides which part
it will form and goes to the appropriate places according to this decision.
They believe that everything happens as a work of chance without intervention;
that the cells and the atoms determine by their own wills the best action
to take, and perfectly construct a human body. Even if they do not want
to accept what is being said here, this is exactly the substance of what
At this point it is clear in what an enormous logical impasse evolutionists
find themselves. Every detail that has been explained up to now and in
what will be dealt with later shows that, contrary to the evolutionists'
claims, the stages that occur in the formation of a human being cannot
have happened by chance. These extraordinary occurrences happened not
by the work of cells or the organelles that brought them into being; not
by the activity of molecules or atoms, but by the word of Almighty God,
It is He Who created you from earth, then from a drop
of sperm, then from an alaq (embryo), then He brings you infants into
the world; you reach manhood, then you decline into old age though some
of you may die young so that you may reach a predetermined age and so
that hopefully you will grow in wisdom. It is He Who ordains life and
death. When He decides on something, He need only say: "Be!" and it is.
(Qur'an, 40: 67-68)
Awareness Demonstrated by the Egg
cells which make preparations to lodge in the walls of the uterus
are genetically different from those of the mother. Why they are
not rejected like an organ or a tissue transplanted to the mother's
body has been for a long time an unsolved mystery. R. Flanagan explains
it this way:
...The cell cluster suppresses its genetic markers
and instead gives out special signals that can be compared to a
universal password. This password is the same for all people and
is the same one that the mother's cells expressed when she herself
was just such a cluster. Therefore, her cells do not now mobilize
defences against the new arrivals, because they biologically recognize
the nesting cluster as universal friend, not foe.1
Attention must be drawn here to a very important
point. As Flanagan says, it is a very great mystery how a group
of cells sends a "universal message" to another group of cells which
receives this message and "understands" that they are meeting not
an enemy but a friend. It must be remembered that we are not talking
here about a group of human beings, but a mass made up of cells
too small to be seen with the naked eye; a mass which has no hands,
eyes, ears or brain, composed of unconscious atoms, molecules and
proteins. Surely to expect such a demonstration of awareness from
cells is extremely illogical.
The truth confronting us is clear: What ensures
that the embryo lodges easily in the mother's womb and survives
there is the mercy of God, Who created the embryo, the mother and
the mother's defensive system.
Truly, God has knowledge of the Hour and sends
down abundant rain and knows what is in the womb. And no soul knows
what it will earn tomorrow and no soul knows in what land it will
die. God is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (Qur'an, 31: 34)
1-Geraldine Lux Flanagan, Beginning Life, Dorling
Kindersley, London, 1996, p. 34
2- Immune cells of the mother approach to destroy the embryo. (above)
However, a perfect design in the body does not let them cause harm
to the egg.
The Special Protective System Prepared For the Embryo
The cells which attach to the mother's uterus continue to develop and
be nourished in this secure place. But this is an amazing thing, because
the quickly growing embryo is normally confronted by a serious danger-the
mother's immune system.
The immune system regards every kind of foreign material entering the
body as an enemy and attacks it. The embryo's genetic make-up is different
from that of the mother and, for her body, it is a foreign organism. The
moment the mother's defensive cells become aware of the presence of this
foreign organism, they rush towards the uterus. If no special precautions
were taken, the defensive cells would surely kill the embryo.
But there is no such occurrence under healthy conditions, because the
embryo is taken from the beginning under special protection.
Before the embryo attaches itself to the wall of the uterus, trophoblast
cells begin to form around the surface of the embryo, forming a kind of
filter between the mother's blood vessels and the embryo. The mother's
immune cells are unable to detect the trophoblastic tissues because they
lack some proteins that most other cells carry and which help the immune
cells to detect them. Thanks to this characteristic of trophoblast cells,
the embryo is protected from assault by the maternal immune system. Moreover,
some of the trophoblast cells assist in causing oxygen, nutrients and
other necessary substances to reach the embryo.30
Now, let's examine in detail the special structure of these cells.
The Engineering Ability of the Trophoblast Cells
As we explained in the previous pages, despite the fact that the trophoblast
cells have multiplied from the same egg cell, they separate from the cells
which form the embryo; they are a group of cells that perform all the
supportive activities relative to the embryo's development in the mother's
womb. On the seventh day, these cells send out projections in every direction
and begin to grow. The purpose of this change is to penetrate into the
wall of the uterus. During this passage, they meet the mother's blood
vessels and penetrate their outer surface. So, within 7-8 days, the embryonic
tissue becomes connected to the mother's blood.
Some trophoblast cells produce enzymes to destroy the membrane of the
blood vessels in the wall of the uterus. In this way, the pressure exerted
by the mother's blood on the embryo is lessened. The trophoblast cells
go into action as if they were aware of an immanent danger and take measures
to prevent anything that would result in the death of the embryo. If these
cells did not make such an adjustment in the mother's blood vessels, the
mother's blood would flow in under high pressure. In this situation, the
blood circulation in the embryo would stop as a result of the outside
pressure of the mother's.
In subsequent weeks, a number of these special cells again form a buffer
between the embryo and the mother's blood. This buffer is called the "placenta"
which has a very particular structure. When we look closely, we see that
the trophoblast cells form this buffer to act as a blood stopper. This
is a very important feature, because the embryo is now connected to the
mother's tissues and will be fed by the nutrients coming from the mother's
blood. It is necessary for the nutrients to enter, but it is very important
that the defensive cells in the mother's uterus not reach the embryo along
with the nutrients. So, the stopper system formed by the placenta prevents
the defensive cells in the mother's uterus from approaching the embryo.
But if the flow of blood from the mother is blocked, how is the embryo
to be nourished?
The answer to this question shows the perfection of the design found
in the structure of the cells. Tiny empty spaces found among the cells
which serve as the stoppers, are of such a size as to allow the nutrients
needed by the embryo to be drawn from the mother's blood plasma. Oxygen,
nutrient material and minerals from the mother's blood, pass through these
spaces and reach the embryo. But the defensive cells, because they are
so large, cannot pass through these spaces.31
If we think of the bridge that they establish between the mother and
the embryo, it would not be wrong to say that the work done by the trophoblast
cells requires a flawless knowledge of engineering. With the system that
they construct, they really establish the foundation of a "bridge of life"
between the mother and the baby. These cells act as a stopper to prevent
dangerous material from entering the blood and, by leaving spaces between
themselves, they allow the appropriate material to pass.
What we have said here describes only a few of the functions of the trophoblast
cells, but it is enough to give an idea of the perfect design of these
cells. In all the adjustments they make, they leave vacant spaces forming
a system which both determines what material is beneficial and allows
it to pass; they know what material is dangerous for the embryo and do
not permit it to enter. It is very clear that such a structure could not
come about by chance.
Anyone who claims that all these extraordinary features are the result
of chance, will certainly be unable to answer the questions below:
How do these cells know what the embryo needs for its development?
How do they determine which material out of the several materials carried
in the blood is beneficial?
How do they know that the immune system cells will be dangerous for the
How do they determine in advance the size of the material that will harm
How do they have the knowledge to make a filter to prevent the passage
of harmful material and to allow the passage of beneficial material?
In order for the human race to continue, this system cannot have the
slightest error. Anyone with intelligence and awareness knows that chance
did not give these cells their particular characteristics. Chance cannot
produce a design and make this design exactly the same in every human
being. It is God Who creates the trophoblast cells with all their special
characteristics and directs them in their supportive role in the formation
of a human being. This is only an example of the matchless creative art
We have not created the heavens and earth and everything
between them except with truth and for a set term. But those who disbelieve
turn away from Our warning. Say: "Have you thought about those you call
upon apart from God? Show me what they have created on the earth. Or do
they have a partnership in the heavens? Produce a Book for me revealed
before this one or some other shred of divine knowledge, if you are telling
the truth." (Qur'an, 46: 3-4)
The Placenta: The Bridge of Life
Life support systems produced by the latest technology, used in most
hospitals and valued at millions of dollars, are primitive and nearly
useless when compared with a piece of flesh weighing only a few kilograms.
This piece of flesh is the placenta, called by scientists "the real hero
The plecenta is a vital biridge between mother
At a particular time the embryo begins to take nutrients, oxygen and
other material from the mother's blood. The placenta, which is created
to supply all the needs of the developing foetus, acts as a bridge ensuring
the passage of this material between the mother and the foetus (From the
beginning of the third month, the embryo is called a foetus). The placenta
is filled with soft blood vessels which will carry to the baby the nutrient
material seeping from among the trophoblast cells; it sends all this nutrient
material, oxygen, and important minerals such as iron and calcium that
come from the mother, first to the umbilical cord and then to the capillary
vessels of the foetus. Moreover, the placenta not only ensures the supply
of nutrients needed for the metabolism of the foetus, it also chooses
and transports to the foetus the nutrients needed for the formation of
its tissues.33 Amino acids are
required by the foetus for all kinds of syntheses (carbohydrates, nucleic
acids the building blocks of DNA, fats, etc.) The placenta selects these
elements and takes them from the mother's blood. This is generally done
by special carriers. It stores the elements, uses what is necessary for
itself and sends a portion of them into the blood of the foetus. Besides
the nutrients, ions pass through the placenta; two of these are especially
important for the foetus, and it is necessary that they be stored in large
quantities. Of these, one is iron, needed to increase the blood volume;
the other is calcium, required for the development of the bones. The transfer
of these elements is particularly effective: even if the mother has consumed
little iron, the placenta extracts the amount required from the mother's
blood, supplies the baby's needs and protects it from every kind of danger.34
The placenta also expertly performs the reverse operation, carrying waste
material from the foetus to the mother's blood.
It must not be forgotten that the placenta, which we have described as
"choosing", "taking"' "storing" and "carrying" is a tissue composed of
cells. It is the placenta which performs all the activities denoted by
the verbs listed above; for example, it knows that there is a need for
iron, and it is able to choose the element iron from among other substances
and it knows how the iron it selects will be used. It is not a human being
which has this knowledge but a collection of cells called the placenta.
The cells which constitute the placenta recognize the material they need
and are able to select it, and the fact that a cell can recognize an element
is surely a miracle. In addition to recognizing this element, it is even
more miraculous that it can take the appropriate material in the required
amount and carry it to a particular location. The information given so
far and that will follow must always be appreciated with this in mind.
The events that occur in the miracle of human creation indicate a consciousness
displayed by the cells, and by the molecules and atoms that produce the
cells. Indeed, this consciousness does not belong to any of them, but
to God Who creates them and inspires in them the functions that they are
All the details we will examine in the following pages are also a clear
proof of creation.
Other Vital Functions of the Placenta
| Three different
tubes pass through the umbilical cord, which provides the connection
between the baby and the mother's body. One of these tubes carries
nutrients and oxygen to the embryo. Because of this, although the
embryo lives in an environment filled with fluid and its lungs are
filled with this fluid, it does not drown; and although it does
not have a digestion system and cannot eat, the embryo does not
die of hunger. The other two tubes remove the waste produced by
the embryo. It can be seen that the embryo is created according
to a perfect design.
The umbilical cord, which joins the foetus to the placenta has three
blood vessels and looks like a long rope. One of these blood vessels is
called the umbilical vein. It sends blood containing nutrient material
and oxygen from the placenta to the baby. The other two of these vessels
are called the umbilical arteries which transport blood containing carbon
dioxide and waste produced from the nutrient material from the baby to
Due to the strong and flexible structure of the umbilical cord, it does
not coil and cramp easily. It is very important that there be no problem
with the delivery of blood. Moreover, the flexible structure of the cord
makes it possible for the baby to move.
From the point of view of its functions, the placenta is created to act
for the foetus, sometimes like a liver and stomach, and sometimes like
the intestines and kidneys. Moreover, the placenta does not perform its
functions according to a fixed order, but keeps the changing needs of
the baby in view. For example, the food the foetus needs in its first
and second months is different from the food it needs in its eighth and
ninth months; but the placenta makes adjustments for this and effects
a perfect balance, selecting the food that the baby can most easily digest
in each period of its development.
One of the most important functions of the placenta is to secrete the
hormones (eg. oestrogen and progesterone) required by the foetus. Of these
hormones, progesterone has a special effect on decreasing the contractility
of the uterus in the mother's body and gives physical support to the baby.
In order for the baby's development to continue, it makes possible the
formation of the most comfortable environment. Moreover, it allows the
development of the milk glands in the mother's breasts and, at the right
time, helps in the production of milk. Besides this, it gives support
by boosting the mother's metabolism, thus contributing to her health and
comfort. These hormones ensure that the uterus will become a comfortable
and secure place for the embryo, and their secretions in the proper way
and in the appropriate amount are very important for the baby to have
a healthy birth. In addition, these hormones prepare the mother's system
for the birth.
Together with all these functions, the placenta ensures that the baby
is immune to any infections that may occur in the last three months of
What we have described up to this point are only a few of the functions
undertaken by the placenta during the development of the baby. And, in
everything that we have described here, there is an unimaginable amount
of detail. Every system depends on the functioning of many complex chemical
Moreover, every new research conducted about the development of the foetus
reveals a new function that the placenta performs on behalf of the baby.
But in all this there is a common point. Every activity of the placenta
binds the mother and the embryo to each other in a perfectly harmonious
union. This union is of the greatest importance because, if even one of
the balances ensured in the mother's body were to be upset, the embryo
could not survive.
The fact that an organ formed from cells is aware of the needs of a living
thing, determines what is needed and acts with the knowledge of how to
supply the need; and the fact that this organ can produce the required
material in the correct proportion, select and appropriate it from outside;
in short, that such an organ can display conscious activity is not something
that it can do by its own unaided efforts. For example, if a human being
were required to perform the same function, he would not be able to do
it. To understand what a foetus needs and when to take the measures required;
to choose the appropriate material and to repel unwanted material are
things that a person without medical training cannot do. (Even a person
with medical training could not continually, day and night, perform this
duty without making a mistake.)
FROM ONE CELL TO A LUMP OF FLESH…
continue to divide and multiply over a period of time, forming
eye cells sensitive to light, nerve cells to perceive bitterness,
sweetness, pain, heat and cold, ear cells to sense sound waves,
cells of the digestive system to process food, and many others.
After the embryo's first three weeks, the multiplying
cells take on the appearance of a lump. In the Qur'an, this development
is revealed as a change from an "alaq" (embryo) to a "lump":
Then We formed the drop into an alaq (embryo)
and formed alaq into a lump and formed the lump into bones and
clothed the bones in flesh, thus bringing forth another creature.
Blessed be God, the Best of Creators! (Qur'an, 23: 14)
It has only recently been discovered in the science
of embryology that the first phase of a baby's formation ends
with this kind of development. But this scientific fact was revealed
1400 years ago in the Qur'an, which is perfect and without error,
sent down by God, Lord of the universe. Exalted is the Majesty
In the picture on the left, we see a three-weeks-old
foetus attached to the wall of the uterus. This mass of cells
resembling a piece of flesh will continue to divide and, in time,
the eyes which allow us to see, the nose which permits us to smell,
the feet with which we walk and run, and the hands and internal
organs will be formed from these cells. This marvellous transformation
cannot come about by chance. It could not happen by itself. It
is God, the Lord of all the worlds, Who has ordained all these
flawless transformations in the body.
But these duties that a human being cannot perform, can be effected efficiently
and flawlessly by this organ we call the placenta. And the placenta of
every one of the millions of human beings who have lived throughout thousands
of years has demonstrated the same deep awareness and perfect performance.
Indeed, the perfect structure of the placenta and its conscious activities
are the result of God's creating it with all of these characteristics.
To claim the opposite would be to step beyond the limits of intelligence.
With the excellent design that He has created in the human body, God shows
us His incomparable art, and commands us in the Qur'an to consider these
He is Lord of the heavens and the earth and everything
in between them, so worship Him and persevere in His worship. Do you know
of any other worthy of His Name? Man says, "When I am dead, will I then
be again raised to life?" Does not man recall that We created him before
when he was not anything? (Qur'an, 19: 65-67)
In the subjects to be discussed in the following pages, there is an important
point which should not be forgotten. As we have seen in the examples given
so far, all the units of the human body which act according to a plan,
perform their various duties in due time, know at which point to stop,
do not leave their place of duty, can work in a team, make selections
to meet certain needs and produce the requisite material at the right
time, are all cells. As we shall see in some detail later, in the acts
of these cells, which are too small to be seen by the naked eye, there
is an obvious intelligence, and this intelligence does not belong to the
cells. Cells composed of unconscious and lifeless atoms cannot have the
capacity to think and make decisions. This supreme consciousness and intelligence
belong to God. To keep this truth continually in mind is important; it
is the means whereby the individual may deepen his awareness of these
wondrous occurrences, and witness God's eternal power.
The Body Continues to Take Shape
In the first days the embryo takes the nourishment it needs only from
the mother's blood. Now, in order to nourish its own body and send oxygen
to its cells, the embryo needs its own circulatory system. So, in order
to bring this system into being, a number of cells make an instant decision
to cooperate, and begin to form the circulatory system. This cell activity
is a clear proof that they are directed by an eternal intelligence and
On about day 13, a group of cells moves into position where the chest
will be to form the heart. Arranging themselves into a U-shaped tube,
with a great level of awareness they first establish the basic structure
of the heart. Then, as if they had heard that the formation of the heart
had begun, thousands of other cells begin to construct the blood vessels
that will extend all around the body. So, with their conscious deployment
to the appropriate places, the formation of the blood vessels is completed
around day 21. Now, the circulatory system is ready to function, and after
its first beat about day 25, the heart will maintain a rhythm of 60 beats
a minute during its first month of development.35
The first contractions move throughout the whole length
of the heart like a wave, but when the formation of the heart is finished,
the contraction is distributed among the different chambers.
The heart begins to beat, but there is no blood yet. For this also there
are the appropriate cells. These cells, in fact, calculate in advance
that the newly formed human body will need a substance called "blood",
and they turn into blood cells. Before long, blood starts to
flow in the blood vessels. At the end of four weeks, blood begins to
fill the heart and the blood vessels completely. Indeed, the formation
of the heart, the circulatory system and the blood is in itself an astonishing
thing. While none of these yet existed, the cells, executing a perfect
plan and going to the right place at the right time, construct the circulation
system indispensable for human life. None of the stages we have outlined
here is the result of any chance operation; this perfect plan of construction
cannot possibly be made by cells which came into being from one single
cell. At this point too, what confronts us is the evident truth of creation.
Not only the formation of the circulatory system but also the characteristics
possessed by every element of it are created in an astonishing balance.
The blood of a baby developing in its mother's womb has many more special
qualities than that of a mature individual. For example, the haemoglobin
in the baby's blood is able to hold more oxygen than that of an adult.
The number of red blood cells in one cubic centimetre of the blood taken
from an embryo is higher than that found in the same volume of blood from
a newly born baby. At fourth months, the cord can carry a circulation
equivalent to 24 litres a day between the baby and its own placenta. This
circulation flows in constant round trips, bringing supplies to the baby
from the placenta, and returning wastes to the placenta, so swiftly that
a round trip is completed in about thirty seconds.36
In this way, the blood begins to take the required oxygen
and nutrients from the placenta and carry them to the cells. At the moment
the kidneys are formed, the blood begins to be purified by taking waste
gathered from baby's cells to the kidneys.
Let us pause here to consider: Is it possible that such a perfect system
could one day come into being by chance, perfectly and by itself? Is it
possible that the special quality of a baby's blood, the blood vessels
that carry the blood to the heart and from the heart to the appropriate
areas, and the elements that bind the blood cells to the placenta came
about in the course of time by chance? Is it possible that all these elements
in the system constructed themselves?
It is surely not. This system, of the utmost importance for human beings,
must come into being perfectly and in one moment, because any problem
with the formation of the blood or the blood vessels will cause the development
of the embryo to cease. If the heart pumped the blood before the formation
of the blood vessels, the blood would flow uncontrolled and there would
be no circulation. Or, if the heart did not begin to beat at the right
time, blood would not circulate through the body. This means that the
embryo would die without developing in the mother's womb. However, in
every one of the millions of people who have lived throughout the ages
until today, there has been no problem with these operations; the heart
makes its first beat at exactly the right time and pumps just enough blood
to the developing body. This makes the question we posed earlier nonsensical:
"Could it have happened by chance?" The fact that a system, a living being
or an organism comes into being in a moment is clear proof that it has
been created. This is a plain truth that every intelligent person will
The Creator of all these perfect systems is God, Who created man together
with everything he needs and gave him the best of forms.
The Construction of the Nervous System
As all these operations continue, one more important formation must take
place: the central nervous system. The central nervous system (the brain
and the spinal cord) arises from an elongate thickening of the ectoderm,
the outermost of the three primary germ layers of the embryo. The sides
of this neural plate elevate as neural folds, which, by growing further,
meet and fuse, thereby creating a neural tube. The anterior part of this
tube thickens and expands to form the brain; in the meantime, the posterior
part forms the spinal cord.
All the developments we have summarized here in one or two sentences
surpass the limits of human imagination. The other stages in the formation
of the nervous system again and again confirm the extraordinary character
of these developments.
The construction of the brain
appears clearly in the watery environment of the mother's womb.
This construction is accomplished by cells which have no intelligence
or awareness. At the end of this wondrous process the baby will
have a total of 10 billion brain cells. Every cell acts with prior
knowledge of what cells it must connect with. From among endless
possibilities, it finds the place where it belongs. It unites with
the cell that it must unite with. In the end, it will have made
100 trillion perfect connections in the brain. That will which allows
unconscious cells, working in the dark, to construct the world's
most excellent computer-the brain-is the eternal knowledge of God.
From the fifth week there begins to be produced in the spinal column
special nerve cells called neurons. They are produced very quickly at
the rate of 5000 per second.37
A large number of brain cells are produced in the first five months of
the embryo's life, and all of them will have taken their place in the
brain before birth. Cells of the nervous system form very quickly and
then begin to migrate to more distant areas in order to form the columns
of the central nervous system.
But, at this stage, it is absolutely necessary for every neuron to find
the place in the nervous system reserved for it. For this reason, a guide
is indispensable in order for the young neurons to find their way. These
guides are special cells which stretch out as a kind of cable between
the places where the brain and spinal cord develop. The neurons leave
the place where they were produced and migrate attached to these guides.
They recognize the place allotted to them, lodge there and immediately
send out extensions establishing connections with other neurons.
This is all very well. But how do the neurons know to set out on such
a long journey as soon as they are formed? How do they decide to use a
guide to reach their target and to cooperate with one another? What we
call neurons are cells, too small to be seen with the naked eye, and are
composed of atoms and molecules. No doubt they cannot deploy in such a
conscious way by their own decision or will. What directs this activity
is not the brain, because the brain of the embryo in the mother's womb
has not yet developed.
As soon as these cells are formed, they move as if programmed, directed
by information infused into them, to a place they do not know. It is clear
that in the process of the formation of the brain and the nervous system,
no occurrence can come about by chance, because a variation in one single
stage would cause a chain reaction making the whole system go wrong. The
formation of neurons and their becoming a system of nerves is only one
stage in the formation of the brain and the nervous system attached to
it. Let alone the brain, as the evolutionists claim, not even one neuron
can be formed by coincidence.
There are many more details of this development. For example, when they
first come to be, the neurons have a different structure from those of
a mature human being. In order to perform the functions required by the
nervous system of a developing human being, the neurons migrate to a particular
part of the body, and in the first stage, their metabolism enables them
to survive without oxygen. However, when they arrive at the brain area
and establish themselves there, they immediately acquire a metabolism
that depends on oxygen for its survival. For the benefit of all the nerve
cells this transformation must take place perfectly every time, otherwise
their survival would not be possible. This is no doubt a miraculous thing.38
We know today that it is highly dangerous for human brain cells to remain
without oxygen for a certain period, and if that period be prolonged,
first paralysis, then death are inevitable. But the neurons which first
come into being have a totally different system. If there is a problem
at this stage only, that is, if there is no change in the metabolism of
the neurons at exactly the right moment, the embryo will not develop into
a human being. Of course, it is not possible for a cell to determine what
function it will perform in the future and to change its structure by
its own will and conscious awareness in order to perform this function.
This being the case, we are confronted by a clear truth: it is God Who
creates the neurons with these characteristics, puts them to work at the
right moment and places them where they must go. Every human being should
know that he has been brought through these stages, and give thanks when
he sees the magnificence with which God has created him as a human being.
He must not for one moment forget that God is the Creator of everything,
and that apart from Him, there is no other power on heaven or on earth.
... Do you then disbelieve in Him Who created you from
dust, then from a drop of sperm, and then formed you as a man? He is,
however, God, my Lord, and I will not associate anyone with my Lord. (Qur'an,
The Importance of "Planning" Among the Cells
When we look at the development of the
embryo, we see that it shows a high degree of proportion and harmony.
At the end of the first month, fully developed eyes, ears, nose, chin
and cheeks become visible.
In the course of this harmonious development it is very important that
growth and structural change are ensured. It is necessary that these changes
occur in the same way for all parts of the body, because all the organs
of the human body have a highly complex structure. For example, the eye
alone has 40 different parts. In order for the eye to be able to perform
its function, it is necessary that the growth of these parts be proportionate,
the connections between the parts be sound and that every part be in its
own place. Otherwise, the eye could not perform its function. In the same
way, in the formation of the arm, the bones and muscles must begin their
formation at the same time.
As can be understood from this, all the cells of the embryo act in harmony.
Every one of them is aware of the general plan of the body. Every one
of them sends a number of messages and reacts to messages coming from
other cells. All the cells in the embryo act together; with real understanding,
each one different from the other, they use what is required in the information
contained in the DNA as needed.
But how do the cells know where to go and what to do? How
can they act in such harmony together with other cells? Who decides how
to use the genetic material contained in the cells and how will the cells
differentiate between one and another?
In the organs of our bodies there must be no deficiency
or excess. A deficiency in an organ is sometimes fatal; at least it causes
some disability. An excess places an unnecessary burden on the body. In
that case, first it is necessary to determine the number of organs that
the body needs. How is this number determined? How is it that when a group
of cells begins to make an organ, another group of cells is not making
a second, exactly similar organ?
It is God Who Creates the Body From a Piece of
Before it begins to develop, the
embryo resembles a mass of flesh. The eyes, ears, heart
and other organs develop and a brand new person comes into
being. Above we can see the series of developments that
occur in the formation of the human face. Every human being
on the face of the earth has undergone these stages. As
a collection of cells unaware of its own existence, a human
being continues through this development in a protected
and secure environment prepared in the mother's womb. The
symmetrical eyes, the eyebrows, nose, mouth, and the protective
skin are all formed in the mother's body. These wondrous
transformations seen in the picture above are a proof of
the creative art of God. It is the duty of every person
in the world to consider this truth and give thanks to God.
Evolutionists try to avoid this issue by saying that the DNA molecule
is responsible for all these functions, but this is only a deception.
The basic point to consider here is this: who placed all the information
in the DNA molecule of every cell of the body? Moreover, who decided where,
when and how this information is to be used? To these questions the evolutionists
can give no answer.
Cells formed from unconscious and lifeless atoms, blood
vessels, tissues, air, wind, or any other material thing, have no power
to make such a decision. It is God Who imprinted this marvellous plan
in the DNA and it is God Who ensures the perfect realization of this plan
by inspiring the cells to do what they must. God has power over all things.
THE MARVELLOUS CREATION OF THE EYE
the fourth week, two cavities are formed on either side of the embryo's
head. It is hard to believe, but the eyes will be formed in these
cavities beginning in the sixth week. For months the cells work
according to an incredible plan, forming the various parts of the
eye one by one. Some cells make the cornea, some make the pupil
and others make the lens. When a part that a particular cell constructs
is completed, the cell ceases to work. Each cell makes a different
part of the eye; afterwards, they unite with one another in a marvellous
way. There is no error in the process; nothing else takes the place
of the pupil, and the cornea, eye muscles, and every other element
is in place. These operations continue and the eye is perfectly
formed with its various layers.
Here we must ask ourselves a few questions:
How do these cells know that they must construct different layers?
How do they decide where to begin and end the construction of each
layer? To these questions there is only one answer: The cells are
able to perform this conscious activity because they move under
the inspiration of God. But evolutionists who try to explain the
formation of a human being by the operations of chance cannot give
an answer to these questions.
One evolutionist who explained the
perfect plan in the human body was Hoimar von Ditfurth. In his book,
Im Anfang War Der Wasserstoff (In the Beginning was Hydrogen), he
explained the formation of a human being in detail, but he confessed
that the theory of evolution could never give an answer to the questions
"how" or "why":
If there is no plan to determine where
and when the construction will begin and in what sequence each of
its components will be put into operation, that plan will be useless,
even if it is excellent in other respects. We know that we must
start constructing this building from the foundation up and after
we finish the walls we put on the roof. But before the electrical
and water installations are completed, we cannot go on to the plastering.
Along with a blueprint that is followed exactly in every construction,
there is also a right time to do it.
This is also valid for natural constructions
and especially for cells. But we know almost nothing about how this
"before and after" relationship occurs in the organization of a
cell. Biologists have not yet been able to find out who tells a
cell what part of the plan it has to put into effect and when. Who
gives the command that hinders the operation of some genes at just
the right time, how an embargo on some genes is removed, and who
sets suppressor-genes and enhancer genes into action? These are
questions about which we are completely in the dark.1
the formation of the eye, "the world's finest camera", we have seen
that unconscious cells act with the utmost awareness, creating the
eye in the mother's body from nothing. Certainly, it is not the
cells themselves that succeed in doing this extraordinary thing:
they act under the inspiration of the Almighty God. In the Qur'an,
God reveals that He gives human beings their form:
He is God-the Creator, the Maker,
the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything
in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the
All-Wise. (Qur'an, 59: 24)
1-Hoimar von Ditfurth, Im
Anfang War Der Wasserstoff (In the Beginning was Hydrogen), pp.
The Wrapping of Muscles Over the
Until very recently, embryologists assumed that
the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at the same time. Yet,
recent research has revealed a very different fact which had gone
unrecognised by man. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies.
Then muscular cells that are selected from amongst the tissue around
the bones come together and wrap around the bones.
This fact, which has recently been discovered by
science, was related to man in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago:
Then We formed the drop into an alaq (embryo) and
formed alaq into a lump and formed the lump into bones and clothed
the bones in flesh thus bringing forth another creature. Blessed
be God, the Best of Creators! (Qur'an, 23: 14)
This event, of which the Qur'an informed us 1,400
years ago, is thus described in a scientific publication titled
The shape of the skeleton determines the general
appearance of the embryo in the bones stage during the 7th week;
muscles do not develop at the same time but their development follows
around the bones throughout the body and therefore clothe the bones.
Thus the muscles take their well known forms and structures.1
In short, man's developmental stages as described
in the Qur'an are in perfect harmony with the findings of modern
embryology. God, the Lord of all the worlds, had given this information
to man centuries ago.
1-Keith L. Moore, The Developing Human, W.B.
Saunders Company, PA, 1982, p. 364a
Preparations for the World Outside
The baby, whose organs are slowly developing and who is beginning to
move, awaits a further development. In order for the baby to survive in
an environment totally different from the secure one in which it now lives,
it is necessary that the required arrangements be made.
At the right, the foetus can be seen in the
amniotic membrane. The fluid inside the membrane protects the foetus
from shocks and trauma. In addition, the amniotic fluid also prepares
the intestines of the foetus for their absorptive function, assists
the functioning of the kidneys and ensures the constant temperature
needed by the foetus. The presence of amniotic fluid is also important
for the health of the mother. Because of this fluid, the foetus
is prevented from exerting pressure on the uterus.
To this end, the baby needs to start moving slowly and put its newly
formed organs into operation. This problem has been solved in the most
wonderful way. In the membrane separating the baby from the uterus, a
special fluid called "amniotic fluid" begins to be produced. The baby's
kidneys and lungs, the amniotic membrane and the surrounding uterus contribute
to the formation of this fluid.39
The Baby's "Water of Life": Amniotic Fluid
Amniotic fluid is specially produced for the baby; it ensures that the
organs are prepared to function after birth. The baby, as it were, practises
with the amniotic fluid to become accustomed to the outside world by regularly
ingesting it. In this way, its tongue begins to perceive bitter, sweet,
salty and sour tastes. Afterward, the saliva glands begin to function.
The amniotic fluid ingested by the foetus begins to prepare the intestines
for their absorptive function, and it makes the kidneys function by creating
the necessity for the constant filtration of this same fluid from the
blood. The fluid absorbed from the kidneys is transmitted back again to
the amniotic fluid, without contaminating it, because the kidneys have
the ability, distinct from their later function, to filter and sterilize
the fluid ingested by the baby. And this fluid, as when you clean a swimming
pool, is continually purified with the help of a few other fluids.
Without amniotic fluid it is not possible for a baby to develop
in the mother's uterus. This fluid has been produced flawlessly
from the time of the first human being until today. This invalidates
the claim of the evolutionists that this development occurred by
changes which happened stage by stage over a period of time.
In the same period along with these developments, digestive fluids begin
to be secreted in the stomach in order that the digestive system may be
fully prepared.40 And the cells
in the baby's newly formed intestines acquire the ability to distinguish
between sugars and salts and later to return particular waste products
to the mother's blood. In this way, both the intestines and the kidneys
are put into action. The amniotic fluid is ingested by the intestines
of the foetus once every three hours, that is, eight times a day and is
returned to the mother via the blood. As much fluid as is ingested is
released to the pool of amniotic fluid both from the mother's womb and
from the lungs and kidneys of the foetus where it is produced. In this
way, the amount of this fluid, so vitally important for the foetus, remains
constant. Because of this perfect system, the digestive system of the
foetus is put into operation without any harm to the foetus.
Synchronized with the growth of the foetus, the amount of amniotic fluid
increases, reaching about 30 ml at ten weeks, 350 ml at five months, and
1 litre by the seventh month. At the moment of birth however, the amount
of fluid falls to half a litre.41
The amniotic fluid not only prepares the digestive system for the post-birth
period, but also ensures that the baby may move more comfortably in the
mother's womb. The foetus floats in this fluid like a rowboat tied up
in a harbour. In this state it can move very securely in the mother's
womb. At the same time, this fluid protects the foetus from any physical
trauma from outside. Pressure applied on the fluid from any direction
is dispersed equally in every direction protecting the foetus from any
harmful effects. For example, if the mother runs, the jolts produced have
no effect on the baby; it is like a cork shaken in a container filled
with water. The most perfect protective system possible has been created
for the foetus; every kind of danger has been foreseen and precautions
The presence of amniotic fluid is also important for the health of the
mother. This fluid fills the whole womb, so as the foetus grows and gains
weight, no pressure is exerted on the womb itself. If this fluid were
not present, the growing foetus would weigh the uterus down and the counter-pressure
exerted by the uterine walls would make the normal development of the
This special fluid provides another vital necessity for the foetus: a
constant temperature. It is known that fluids distribute heat evenly.
The amniotic fluid is recycled continually and has a constant temperature.
The heat needed for the development of the foetus is distributed equally
in every direction.
If there is a single problem with the production of this fluid, with
its continuous purification or the adjustment of its volume, the natural
development of the foetus is impaired. For example, if the amount of amniotic
fluid is less than required, or if it is not present at all, a series
of abnormalities begins to appear. Limbs wither and become deformed, joints
fuse, skin loosens and, because of pressure, the face is deformed. The
most serious problem is that the development of the lungs is impeded and
the baby dies immediately after birth.42
SPECIAL TINY HAIRS PROTECTING THE
The baby developing in the mother's womb is protected
by the amniotic fluid. But if the baby spends too much time in this
fluid, it will suffer damage. But this does not happen. The baby's
body has an excellent defence against damage by this fluid. In the
fifth month, tiny colourless hairs cover the baby's body. These
hairs remain on the baby's body for three or four months. Before
birth they cover the baby's body almost completely. Because of these
hairs, the amniotic fluid will not be able to damage the baby's
skin. It it clear that the presence of these hairs is a special
precaution taken to protect the baby. In the development of the
baby in the mother's womb there is no deficiency in any detail.
This system is organized so that no problems will occur and it is
only one of the manifestations of the limitless creative power of
All this shows us that from the first human being until now, the production
of amniotic fluid has continued flawlessly. Without it, a baby could not
develop in its mother's womb. This fact completely discredits the evolutionists'
claim that development occurs stage by stage over a period of time. If
one single stage in the creation of a new human being did not occur, for
example, as we said just now, if the production of amniotic fluid were
deficient, birth could never take place and the human race would never
have come into existence. Therefore, it cannot be claimed that amniotic
fluid began to be produced over a period of time when the need for it
arose. This fluid must exist along with the baby. It is impossible to
claim that such a fluid, which has such important functions, was formed
in a moment by chance. To say that a complex organism came to exist in
a moment is to say that this organism was created. It is impossible for
chance actions to calculate, determine needs, to select the things appropriate
for these needs and apply them at the right time and in the right place.
It is clear that God creates the amniotic fluid and the systems to which
it is connected. He too determines the amount of amniotic fluid required.
God knows what every female bears and every shrinking
of the womb and every swelling. Everything has its measure with Him. (Qur'an,
Preparations for the First Breath
After birth the most important thing for the baby is to breathe; it is
necessary that the lungs, which had never known air before, fill with
it and start to breathe. The baby, who had previously received oxygen
from the mother's blood, must now take it from the air with his own lungs.
And in a miraculous way, the lungs, when had never taken a breath before
the first moment of birth, begin to breathe quite normally.
At the moment the baby is born, God creates everything in readiness and
ensures that the preparation of the lungs has been completed as required.
For the preparation of the lungs, the diaphragm comes into play; it is
located between the stomach and the rib cage. The diaphragm begins to
function towards the sixth month of pregnancy. At first it expands and
contracts intermittently several times an hour, but after birth it will
do this continuously.
It can be seen from this that the baby is constantly under special protection,
but it must be remembered that this is not the mother's protection. As
the foetus develops, the mother carries on her normal life; none of the
changes in her body are under her control. Even if she wanted to intervene,
she could not. All these developments occur by the eternal power of our
Lord. God has created all the things required for a child to come into
the world as a normal human being in the most wonderful way. All the needs
of the baby while it is in the foetus stage are met, and the mother is
spared the necessity of thinking about what she must do to bring the baby
into the world and ensure that the baby will survive.
Even if she thought about doing something to this end, there is nothing
she could do. For example, taking waste material from the body of the
foetus into her own kidneys, purifying it and discharging it are things
which no mother could do on her own. It is God Who determines all the
needs for a new human being to come into the world and constructs the
system in the way that will best respond to these needs.
The Preparations Are Completed
As the foetus gradually gets prepared for life in the outside world,
an extraordinary team of workers is organized among the organs. The work
that will be done is determined according to the conditions in the outside
world. The eyes, unused in the mother's womb, are constructed for the
intensity of the world's light; the ears are made for the world's sounds.
In the same way, the stomach and the other digestive organs are equipped
with a physiological system designed to function in relation to this world's
nutrient material. The cells of the digestive system are programmed and
adjusted so as to digest food they have never encountered. Along with
their ability to analyse carbohydrates and fats, they are programmed to
know which nutrients are required by which organs and to ensure that these
nutrients are sent to the relevant cells in the body. So, the foetus is
prepared for the outside world in a planned and programmed way. Here we
must point out again that these organs and cells that constitute the body
of a new human being make these preparations for an environment that they
have never seen, heard of or otherwise experienced. They develop as if
they were aware of the environment that was waiting for them after leaving
the mother's body. Certainly it is impossible to claim that these cells
accomplish these acts by their own prescience. The conscious and deliberate
preparations made by the cells in forming a baby's body, inspired in them
by God, must be considered as an important proof of creation.
It is possible with today's technology
to observe the development of the baby in the mother's womb with
In the final months, the foetus begins to gain weight. Certain cells
produce a fat layer which is named "brown fat" because it has a brownish
colour. The special brown fat develops in particular areas of the foetus
such as the nape of the neck, around the kidneys and behind breastbone.
In addition to providing insulation, brown fat itself produces heat. The
special function of this fat layer is to keep the baby warm in the early
weeks after birth.43 The fact
that these cells which produce this fat layer flawlessly perform the duties
that have been inspired in them is another proof of creation.
In the meantime, the skin of the foetus undergoes important changes resulting
in the development before birth of skin surface which is critical for
survival after birth. The skin of the foetus produces an oily surface
covering which confers a water repelling property to the surface of the
skin in contact with the amniotic fluid. This oily surface layer has an
important effect to promote maturation of the underlying skin cells and
the formation of a skin barrier before birth.44
In earlier sections, we mentioned that in the early stages of the embryo,
the mother's defensive cells are not permitted access to the baby's blood.
These cells see the baby as a foreign intrusion and could kill it. But
in the ninth month, this situation changes suddenly and antibodies (a
protective protein produced by the immune system) in the mother's womb
pass to the foetus through the placenta. When we examine the reason for
this, we are struck by something very surprising. In the first six months
after birth, the cells in the baby's immune system do not develop, but
the baby will need antibodies to protect it from the germs in the world.
So, in the last month, the mother's antibodies, which are permitted access
to the baby's blood, will be ready to protect the baby from contracting
infectious diseases when it is first born.45 In
the subsequent months, as the baby's immune system begins to produce its
own antibodies, the mother's antibodies will cease functioning.
As in what we have said before, this operation too, as outlined above,
is an example of the perfect plan in the creation of human beings. The
details in every month, every day, every minute of the formation of a
human being are minutely calculated. Flawless systems prevent harmful
material from reaching the foetus, but when these materials are needed,
the old system is removed according to the same perfect plan, and a new
one is put in place. Certainly, this perfection does not come about by
the deliberate decision and will of the cells which make up a human being.
All these things are proof of the incomparable creation of Almighty God.
As can be seen in the examples given, every stage in the development
of a human being is controlled and occurs according to a perfectly ordered
plan. And every human being, while in the foetus stage, undergoes this
controlled development and grows into maturity. The special plan and perfect
design in the development of a human being is a manifestation for aware
individuals of the eternal knowledge and wisdom of God
CREATION FROM A DROP
During the nine months in the mother's womb, growth continues perfectly.
The foetus first enters the womb as a drop of fluid and gradually turns
into a human being.
there were the slightest lack of coordination in this development, the
foetus would surely die. For example, if the brain grew more quickly than
the bones of the skull, the brain of the foetus would be compressed and
suffer damage. This coordination is also important for the formation of
the eyes, the liver and heart, as well as other organs and the bones which
surround them. The ordered development of the organs is also very important
because, if the kidneys were slow to develop and the circulatory system
had already formed, the blood would not be purified and the body would
But this does not happen and the baby about to open his eyes to the world
is created by passing perfectly from one stage to another.
The only power that creates a complete human being from what was at first
just a drop of fluid is that of Almighty God, the Lord of the universe.
The Qur'an tells how God created human beings:
Does man reckon he will be left to go on unchecked?
Was he not a drop of ejaculated sperm,
then an alaq (embryo) which He created and shaped,
making from it both sexes, male and female?
Is He Who does this not able to bring the dead to life?
(Qur'an, 75: 36-40)
Certainly, an individual confronted by this truth will always be thankful
to his Lord for creating him from a drop of fluid and making him a seeing,
hearing and thinking person.
Say: "It is He Who brought you into being and
gave you hearing, sight and hearts. What little thanks you show!" (Qur'an,