THE HISTORY OF BOLSHEVIK SAVAGERY
Joseph Stalin, the murderer of 40 million
The 20th century was the bloodiest period in human history,
with world wars, genocide, concentration camps, the development of chemical
and nuclear weapons, bombings, guerilla wars, and terrorist activities
unheard before. As a result of this savagery, the number of dead is estimated
in the hundreds of millions.
Why was the last century so bloody? First, advancing technology led to
the development of weapons much more lethal than earlier ones. But the
second and most important reason was that ideologies caused these weapons
to be employed with terrible cruelty. The 20th century saw the violent
harvest of the various "isms" that were founded in the 19th.
Communism, the bloodiest of these "isms," is by far the cruelest and
also the most widespread. The number murdered by Communist regimes or
organizations in the past hundred years stands at roughly 120 million.
Just for the sake of this ideology, these people were removed from their
homes, worked to death in concentration camps, exiled to perish on the
Siberian steppes, subjected to the horrible tortures in the most horrible
prisons, executed by brainwashed Communist militants, strangled, had their
throats cut, or starved to death in deliberately-created famines.
The savagery of this red terror began first in Russia during the Bolshevik
Revolution of 1917. It spread throughout the newly formed Soviet Union
and from there, to eastern Europe, China, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, some
Latin American countries, Cuba and Africa.
Lenin's Bloody Revolution
Above: After Marx's death, Lenin interpreted
his ideology, trying to fill the lacunae and reconcile the contradictions
Marx had left. In so doing, Lenin produced the formula for bringing
Communism to power by force of arms. The photograph above, taken
in 1897 in St. Petersburg, shows Lenin (right) with other Communist
militants. Left: A Russian edition of Marx's Das Kapital.
Karl Marx never led any political party. He was only a theoretician who
tried to cram all of human history into the context of the rules of dialectical
materialism. From his point of view, he interpreted the past and made
predictions about the future, of which the greatest prediction was global
revolution. He promised that the workers would destroy the capitalist
system, after which a classless society would result.
In decades that passed since Marx's death in 1883, the revolution he'd
announced so confidently never took place. In the capitalist countries
of Europe, workers' living and working conditions improved, however slightly,
abating the tension between the workers and the bourgeoisie. The revolution
wasn't happening, and it wasn't going to happen.
Lenin speaking to a crowd in Red Square, 1919
In the early 1900s, another important name appeared in Russia. Vladimir
Ilich Lenin was gradually rising to prominence in Russia's Social Democratic
Party, which Marxists had founded. Lenin gave Marxism a whole new interpretation.
In his view, the revolution couldn't happen spontaneously, because the
European working class had been sedated by what the bourgeoisie had offered
them and in any other countries was no working class worth mentioning.
To this problem, Lenin offered a militant solution: Marx's predicted revolution
wouldn't be carried out by the workers (the proletariat, in Marxist literature),
but by surrogates-a Communist Party of professional revolutionaries with
military training, acting on the workers' behalf. By using armed intervention
and propaganda, "the Communist Party" would
bring about a political revolution. From the moment their authoritarian
regime seized power, it would establish what Lenin called the "dictatorship
of the proletariat." It would clear away opposition, abolish private property,
and ensure society's advancement towards a Communist order.
With Lenin's theory, Communism would become the ideology of a group of
armed terrorists. After him, hundreds of Communist Parties (or workers'
parties devoted to bloody revolution) sprouted throughout the world.
What methods did the Communist Party intend for its revolution? Lenin
answered this in both his writings and his actions: The Party would shed
as much blood as possible. In 1906, eleven years before the Bolshevik
Revolution, he wrote in Proletary magazine:
Bolshevik revolutionaries posing with their
weapons in St. Petersburg, November 1917
The phenomenon in which we are
interested is the armed struggle. It is conducted by individuals
and by small groups. Some belong to revolutionary organizations, while
others (the majority in certain parts of Russia) do not belong to any
revolutionary organization. Armed struggle pursues two different aims,
which must be strictly distinguished: in the first
place, this struggle aims at assassinating individuals, chiefs and subordinates
in the Army and police; in the second place, it aims at the confiscation
of monetary funds both from the government and from private persons. The
confiscated funds go partly into the treasury of the party, partly for
the special purpose of arming and preparing for an uprising, and partly
for the maintenance of persons engaged in the struggle we are describing.
The big expropriations (such as the Caucasian, involving over 200,000
rubles, and the Moscow, involving 875,000 rubles) went in fact first and
foremost to revolutionary parties - small expropriations go mostly, and
sometimes entirely, to the maintenance of the "expropriators".14
Above, Lenin with a group of Bolshevik militants
in 1918. In telegraphs he sent to Communist militants in all parts
of the country, Lenin gave constant orders for executions, to be
carried out in a way as to spread fear among the people.
At the beginning of the 1900's, an important divergence of ideas occurred
in the Russian Social Democratic Party. The group led by Lenin supported
revolution by violence; while another group wanted to bring Marxism to
Russia by more democratic means. The Leninists, though small in numbers,
used various methods of pressure to gain the majority and became known
as the Bolsheviks, the Russian word for majority. The other group
was called the Mensheviks, which means minority.
The Bolsheviks began to organize following the way Lenin had outlined,
through such methods as assassinations, confiscation of government money,
and robbing official institutions. After many years of banishment, the
Bolsheviks began their Russian Revolution of 1917. Actually, that year
saw two separate revolutions. The first came in February; when Tsar Nicholas
II was removed from the throne and imprisoned with his family, and a democratic
government was established. But the Bolsheviks didn't want democracy;
they were determined to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat.
In October 1917, their awaited revolution took place. Communist militants
led by Lenin and Trotsky, his chief assistant, seized first the former
capital, Petrograd ("Peter City," named for Peter the Great), and then
Moscow. Battles in these two cities established the world's first Communist
After the October Revolution, Russia was swept by a three-year civil
war war between the so-called White Army, assembled by Tsarist generals,
and the Red Army led by Trotsky. In July of 1918, Lenin ordered Bolshevik
militants to execute Tsar Nicholas II and his family, including his three
children. In the course of the civil war, the Bolsheviks did not hesitate
to commit the bloodiest crimes, murders, and tortures against their opponents.
IGNORANT MILITANTS OF COMMUNISM
The Bolsheviks addressed the ignorant masses with basic slogans,
adding many people to their ranks in a short time through intense
propaganda. The poor and uneducated were easily persuaded to believe
the lies of Communists who promised them bread and a comfortable
life. The atheism fostered by Darwinism hardened Communist propaganda.
This picture shows a group of Russian workers and peasants who became
Communists within a few days, as a result of this propaganda.
Both the Red Army and the Cheka, a secret police organization
founded by Lenin, inflicted terror on all parts of society opposed to
the revolution. A book entitled The Black Book of Communism written by
a group of scholars and published by the Harvard University Press, describing
Communist atrocities throughout the world, has this to say about Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks had decided to eliminate, by legal and physical means,
any challenge or resistance, even if passive, to their absolute power.
This strategy applied not only to groups with opposing political views,
but also to such social groups as the nobility, the middle class, the
intelligentsia, and the clergy, as well as professional groups such as
military officers and the police. Sometimes the Bolsheviks subjected these
people to genocide. The policy of "de-Cossackization" begun in 1920 corresponds
largely to our definition of genocide: a population group firmly established
in a particular territory, the Cossacks as such were exterminated, the
men shot, the women, children and the elderly deported, and the villages
razed or handed over to new, non-Cossack occupants. Lenin commpared the
Cossacks to the Vendée during the French Revolution and gladly subjected
them to a program of what Gracchus Babeuf, the "inventor" of modern Communism,
characterized in 1795 as "populicide."15
In every city they entered, the Bolsheviks killed those
not open to their ideology and committed acts of excessive savagery intended
to instill fear. The Black Book of Communism describes the Bolshevik atrocities
Leon Trotsky, military leader of the Bolshevik
Revolution and the second most important man after Lenin. As leader
of the Red Army, he led all of Russia into a bloody civil war. Left,
we see a view of the tens of thousands of innocents killed in the
Similar acts of violence occurred in most of the cities of the Crimea
occupied by the Bolsheviks, including Sevastopol, Yalta, Alushta, and
Simferopol. Similar atrocities are recorded from April and May 1918 in
the big Cossack cities then in revolt. The extremely precise file of the
Denikin commission record "corpses with hands cut
off, broken bones, heads ripped off, broken jaws, and genital removed."16
The Russian historian and socialist S.P. Melgunov,
in his book The Red Terror in Russia, says that Sevastopol was turned
into a "city of the hanged" because of the extermination campaign against
From Nakhimovksky, all one could see was the hanging bodies of officers,
soldiers, and civilians arrested in the streets. The town was dead, and
the only people left alive were hiding in lofts or basements. All the
walls, shop fronts, and telegraph poles were covered with posters calling
for "Death to the traitors." They were hanging people for fun.17
Russian soldiers supporting an uprising instigated by Trotsky against
the Tsar in St. Petersburg, 1917.
The Bolsheviks sorted the people they wanted to eliminate into certain
categories. For example, the bourgeoisie (or the "Mensheviks," who understood
socialism differently from the Bolsheviks) were the new regime's chief
enemies. The "kulak," the most numerous category,
was specially targeted. In Russian, a kulak is the name given to a rich
landowner. During the revolution and the civil war, Lenin issued hundreds
of orders that rained pitiless terror on the kulaks. For example, in
one telegram to the Central Executive Committee of Penza soviet, he said:
A propaganda poster showing Trotsky as a war hero.
Comrades! The kulak uprising in your five districts
must be crushed without pity. The interests of the whole revolution demand
such actions, for the final struggle with the kulaks has now begun. You
must make an example of these people. Hang (I mean hang publicly, so that
people see it) at least 100 kulaks, rich bastards, and known blood-suckers.
Publish their names. Seize all their grain…Do all this so that for miles
around people see it all, understand it, tremble…Reply saying you have
received and carried out these instructions. Yours, Lenin.18
Lenin gave many orders like this one. Bolshevik militants
gladly carried out his instructions, even inventing their own styles of
savagery. The famous author Maxim Gorky witnessed some of these methods
and later wrote:
In Tambov province Communists were nailed with railway spikes by their
left hand and left foot to trees a metre above the soil, and they watched
the torments of these deliberately oddly-crucified people. They would
open a prisoner's belly, take out the small intestine and nailing it to
a tree or telegraph pole they drove the man around the tree with blows,
watching the intestine unwind through the wound. Stripping a captured
officer naked, they tore strips of skin from his shoulders in the form
of shoulder straps...19
The Bolsheviks undertook to exterminate those who did not want to adopt
Communism. Tens of thousands were executed without a trial. Many opponents
of the regime were sent to concentration camps, collectively called the
"Gulag," where prisoners were worked almost to death under very harsh
conditions. Many never left these camps alive. In the period from 1918
to 1922, they murdered hundreds of thousands of workers and villagers
who had opposed the regime.
The Harvard historian Richard Pipes investigated secret
Soviet archives to research his book, The Unknown Lenin. Revealing
that Lenin gave countless orders to have people tortured and murdered,
he ends his book with this evaluation:
With the evidence currently available it becomes difficult to deny that
Lenin was, not an idealist, but a mass murderer,
a man who believed that the best way to solve problems-no matter whether
real or imaginary-was to kill off the people who caused them. It
is he who originated the practice of political and social extermination
that in the twentieth century would claim tens of millions of lives.20
Pavlov's Dogs and Lenin's Plans for Human Evolution
It's important to understand the reason behind Lenin's violence and that
underlay further examples of Communist tragedies. Why did Lenin and other
Communist leaders we'll examine later-Stalin, Mao, and Pol Pot-become
Ivan Pavlov, known for his conditioned reflex
experiments performed on animals.
The reason is the materialist philosophy they held, and its view of human
beings. As we saw at the beginning, Communism is basically materialist
philosophy applied to history, in total harmony with Darwin's theory of
evolution-which, in turn, is the adaptation of materialist philosophy
to the natural world. Some basic elements of this perverse philosophy
can be outlined as follows:
1. A human being is composed only of
matter, with no spirit or soul.
2. A human is a highly evolved species
of animal. Essentially, there is no difference between human beings and
animals. The only difference between a human being and other animals is
that his environment has tamed him.
3. In nature and in human society,
the only unchanging law is the one of conflict. Conflicting interests
result in struggle. At the end of any struggle, it is natural-even necessary-that
one side lose, suffer and die.
4. Therefore, from the Communist point
of view, for any development to take place-for example, for the "revolution"
to succeed-it's inevitable, even necessary, that many people will suffer,
be subjected to torture, and die.
5. To legitimize these convictions,
Communism-and every other ideology that adopts a materialist philosophy-resorts
to destroying a society's faith in God. Actually, the aim of materialism
is to alienate society from its belief in God and in religious and moral
values, and bring into being a mass of human beings who consider themselves
an assortment of soulless animals. In this way, these ideologues believe
that they can control the masses, establish their own power, and prepare
a legitimate foundation for any immorality or cruelty they wish to commit.
TRIGGERING CONDITIONED REFLEXES
Trotsky gives a propaganda speech to a mass crowd in Red Square
Lenin and Trotsky believed they could train human beings like animals,
using methods to evoking a conditioned response. The Soviet Union
organized the Communist Party according to this logic.
Given that Communism regards human being in this way, it follows that
its major efforts have been towards "bestializing" them-beating them like
wild animals, "training" them by instilling fear and inflicting pain and,
when necessary, cutting their throats.
Very clearly, Lenin accepted this materialist-Darwinist philosophy that
regards human beings as animals. After speaking privately with Ivan Petrovich
Pavlov, the Russian scientist famous for his experiments on the conditioned
reflexes of animals, Lenin tried applying Pavlov's methods to Russian
society. In his book, A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution,
Orlando Figes writes about Lenin's desire to "educate" the Russian people
as an animal trainer would, and how the roots of this ambition lie in
In October 1919, according to legend, Lenin paid a secret visit to the
laboratory of the great physiologist I. P. Pavlov to find out if his work
on the conditional reflexes of the brain might help the Bolsheviks control
human behaviour. 'I want the masses of Russia to follow a Communistic
pattern of thinking and reacting,' Lenin explained… Pavlov
was astounded. It seemed that Lenin wanted him to do for humans what he
had already done for dogs. 'Do you mean that you would like to
standardize the population of Russia? Make them all behave in the same
way?' he asked. 'Exactly' replied Lenin. 'Man can
be corrected. Man can be made what we want him to be.'… [T]he ultimate
aim of the Communist system was the transformation of human nature.
It was an aim shared by the other so-called totalitarian regimes of the
inter-war period…As one of the pioneers of the eugenics movement in Nazi
Germany put in 1920, 'it could almost seem as if we have witnessed a change
in the concept of humanity…We were forced by the terrible exigencies of
war to ascribe a different value to the life of the individual than was
the case before.'
...The notion of creating a new type of man through the enlightenment
of the masses had always been the messianic mission of the nineteenth-century
Russian intelligentsia, from whom the Bolsheviks emerged. Marxist philosophy
likewise taught that human nature was a product of historical development
and could thus be transformed by a revolution. The scientific materialism
of Darwin and Huxley, which had the status of a religion among the Russian
intelligentsia during Lenin's youth, equally lent itself to the view that
man was determined by the world in which he lived. Thus the Bolsheviks
were led to conclude that their revolution, with the help of science,
could create a new type of man...
...Although Pavlov was an outspoken critic of the revolution
and had often threatened to emigrate, he was patronized by the Bolsheviks.
After two years of growing his own carrots, Pavlov was awarded a handsome
ration and a spacious Moscow apartment... Lenin spoke of Pavlov's work
as 'hugely significant' for the revolution. Bukharin called it 'a weapon
from the iron arsenal of materialism.'21
Trotsky, an important theoretician of Communist ideology
and Lenin's most important associate, agreed with Lenin's views about
"the transformation of human nature" that had their origin in Darwinism.
As Trotsky wrote:
What is man? He is by no means a finished or harmonious being. No, he
is still a highly awkward creature. Man, as an animal, has not evolved
by plan but spontaneously, and has accumulated many contradictions. The
question of how to educate and regulate, of how to improve and complete
the physical and spiritual construction of man, is a colossal problem
which can only be conceived on the basis of Socialism. We can construct
a railway across the Sahara, we can build the Eiffel Tower and talk directly
with New York, but we surely cannot improve man. No, we can! To produce
a new, 'improved version' of man - that is the future task of Communism…Man
must look at himself and see himself as a raw material, or at best as
a semi-manufactured product, and say: 'At last, my dear homo sapiens,
I will work on you.'22
Along with Lenin and Trotsky, other Bolsheviks believed
that human beings were an animal species, nothing more than an agglomeration
of matter. Because they saw no value in human life, millions of persons
could easily be sacrificed for the sake of the revolution. According to
Richard Pipes's The Unknown Lenin, "For humankind at large Lenin had nothing
but scorn:the documents confirm Gorky's assertion that individual human
beings held for Lenin 'almost no interest,' and that he treated the working
class much as a metalworker treated iron ore." 23
Lenin's Policy of Deliberate Starvation
Nearly all Communist regimes of the 20th century have subjected
their peoples to starvation. In Lenin's time, famine brought death to
five million. From 1932 to 1933, in Stalin's time, the same disaster happened
again but with a much wider scope; more than 6 million people died as
a result of it. As we will see in the following pages, millions died as
a result of famine in Mao's Red China and Pol Pot's Cambodia.
Today, with supermarkets, bakeries, pastry shops, and restaurants all
around us; famine seems an alien concept. When we do hear about famine,
most often we think of it as a period of temporary hunger. But the famines
in Russia, China and Cambodia was a prolonged condition that lasted for
months, even years. Apart from grain and rice that villagers could grow
to feed themselves, all produce was snatched from their hands, leaving
them nothing else to eat. People ate all the vegetables and fruit that
they used to collect for sale, and all the animals they could slaughter.
When this supply quickly ran out, they would resort to boiling leaves,
grass and tree bark. After several weeks of continual hunger, their bodies
would grow weak and become emaciated. Some would eat stray cats and dogs
and other wild creatures, including insects. Soon, wracked with pain,
people would start to die, one after another, with no one to bury them.
Finally would appear famine's worst aspect of all: cannibalism. People
would start to eat corpses first, then attack each other, snatching children
to slaughter and devour. In line with Communist philosophy, they would
become bestialized indeed, and human no longer.
This was the goal of the Communist regime. Unbelievable as it might seem,
it happened first in the 20th century, in Bolshevik Russia under Lenin's
In 1918, shortly after the Bolsheviks came to power, Lenin decided to
abolish private property. His decision's most important result was the
nationalization of land once owned by villagers. Bolshevik militants,
Cheka police agents, and Red Army units forced their way into farms all
over Russia and, under threat of arms, confiscated the produce that was
the only source of food for villagers already living in harsh conditions.
A quota was established that every farmer had to give to the Bolsheviks,
but in order to fill it, most farmers had to surrender all the produce
they had. Villagers who resisted were silenced by the most brutal methods.
In order to have not all their wheat seized, some farmers hid a portion
in storage. The Bolsheviks regarded this kind of behavior as a "betrayal
of the revolution" and punished it with incredible savagery. On February
14, 1922, an inspector went to the region of Omsk and described what happened
Abuses of position by the requisitioning detachments,
frankly speaking, have now reached unbelievable levels. Systematically,
the peasants who are arrested are all locked up in big unheated barns;
they are then whipped and threatened with execution. Those who have not
filled the whole of their quota are bound and forced to run naked all
along the main street of the village and then locked up in another unheated
hangar. A great number of women have been beaten until they are unconscious
and then thrown naked into holes dug in the snow…24
As a result of his commitment of Darwinism,
Lenin regarded human beings as a herd of animals and he did not
hesitate to use the cruelest methods against them.
Lenin became enraged when he saw that quotas set for the villagers were
not being met. Finally in 1920, he imposed a terrible punishment on the
villagers in some areas who were resisting the confiscations: These villagers
would have not only their produce taken, but their seeds as well. This
meant they couldn't plant new crops and would certainly die of hunger.
From 1921 to 1922, famine caught 29 million Russian individuals in its
grip; and five million of them died.
CANNIBALS CAUGHT EATING A KIDNAPPED CHILD
In the course of the famine that Lenin regarded as "beneficial,"
cases of cannibalism were discovered. This photograph, taken in
a Russian village in the Volga region in 1921, shows two adults
eating children they had kidnapped and butchered. This scene of
savagery is evidence of the model Communism seeks to establish.
When news of the famine reached Western countries, they organized an
aid campaign to help ease the disaster. It almost succeeded, but it came
too late. The Bolsheviks, wanting to conceal the utter disaster of their
agricultural policy, forbade the publication of any news about the famine,
consistently denying that it was happening. In his book, A Concise History
of the Russian Revolution, Richard Pipes writes:
In the spring of 1921, peasants
in the areas struck by the famine resorted to eating grass, tree bark,
and rodents... There were confirmed cases of cannibalism. Soon
millions of wretched human beings abondoned their villages and headed
for the nearest railroad station hoping to make their way to regions where,
rumor had it, there was food. They clogged the railway depots, for they
were refused transportation, because until July
1921 Moscow persisted in denying that a catastrophe had occurred.
Here, in the words of a contemporary, they waited "for trains which never
came, or for death, which was inevitable." Visitors to the stricken areas
passed village after village with no sign of life, the inhabitants having
either departed or lying prostrate in their cottages, too weak to move.
In the cities, corpses littered the streets...25
What was the aim of this policy? Lenin wanted to strengthen the Bolshevik
regime's economy by seizing villagers' produce and realize the Communist
dream of abolishing private property. But in deliberately subjecting his
fellow Russians to famine, Lenin also had another purpose: Hunger, he
knew, would have a devastating effect on their morale and psychology.
He wanted to use famine as a tool to destroy people's faith in God and
instigate a movement against the church. The Black Book of Communism
describes Lenin's state of mind:
In 1921 and 1922, as a result of the famine
deliberately caused by Lenin, 29 million people within the borders
of the Soviet Union were caught in the grips of starvation. Five
million of them starved to death.
A young lawyer called Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov was then living in Samara,
the regional capital of one of the areas worst affected by the famine.
He was the only member of the local intelligentsia who not only refused
to participate in the aid for the hungry, but publicly opposed it. As
one of his friends later recalled, "Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov had the courage
to come out and say openly that famine would have numerous positive results,
particularly in the appearance of a new industrial proletariat, which
would take over from the bourgeoisie…Famine, he
explained, in destroying the outdated peasant economy, would bring about
the next stage more rapidly, and usher in socialism, the stage that necessarily
followed capitalism. Famine would also destroy faith not only in the tsar,
but in God too."
Thirty years later, when the "young lawyer" had become
the head of the Bolshevik government, his ideas remained unchanged: Famine
could and should "strike a mortal blow against the enemy." The enemy in
question was the Orthodox Church.26
A letter Lenin sent to members of the Politburo on
March 19, 1922, shows he wanted to use hunger as a method to break the
bond between religion and the masses, to numb their reactions and thus
facilitate his planned assault against religious institutions:
In fact the present moment favors us far more than it does them. We are
almost 99 percent sure that we can strike a mortal blow against them [our
enemies] and consolidate the central position that we are going to need
to occupy for several decades to come. With the help of all
those starving people who are starting to eat each other, who are dying
by the millions, and whose bodies litter the roadside all over the country,
it is now and only now that we can-and therefore must-confiscate all church
property with all the ruthless energy we can still muster… All
evidence suggests that we could not do this at any other moment, because
our only hope is the despair engendered in the masses by the famine, which
will cause them to look at us in a favorable light or, at the very least,
WHILE THE PEASANTS WERE DYING
The famine at the beginning of the 1920's resulted from the Bolsheviks
confiscating the peasants' crops. Millions of people, including
hundreds of thousands of children, died in the famine. Lenin told
his comrades this famine was very beneficial, because "it would
destroy faith in God".
... THE RED ARMY WAS PLUNDERING
Children became just skin and bone and died of starvation, but the
Bolsheviks continued to confiscate the peasants' grain. Sacks that
peasants hid underground were found and dragged out of their holes
by Communist militants. Villagers who had hidden the sacks were
tortured to death.
In the Kurgan region in 1918, bags of wheat were forcibly collected
from the people to feed the Red Army.
Right a photograph of Lenin, shortly before
LENIN'S END IS A LESSON FOR ALL
Before he died, Lenin became mad. This photograph, taken shortly
before his death, teaches an example of the torment God sends in
this world upon leaders of irreligion. This end is announced in
Verse 30:10 of the Qur'an: "Then the final fate of those who did
evil will be the Worst because they denied God's Signs and mocked
Lenin's body was mummified like an Egyptian
pharaoh's and placed in a tomb reminiscent of a Greek temple.
Lenin's cruel methods are the first instance of Communist savagery. Stalin
and Mao, the dictators who came after him, only increased the scope of
Lenin's own death is quite telling. He suffered his first stroke in May
1922. On December 16, 1922, he suffered another major attack. Half paralyzed,
he was confined to bed. In March of 1923, his illness worsened significantly
and he lost the ability to speak. Afflicted by terrible headaches, he
spent most of 1923 in a wheelchair. In the final months of his life, those
who saw him were horrified at the frightful, half-mad expression on his
face. He died of a brain hemorrhage on January 21, 1924.
The Bolsheviks mummified Lenin's body and specially preserved his brain,
which they considered to have great value. They placed his body in a tomb,
built in the style of a Greek temple, in Moscow's Red Square, where it
was visited by crowds of people. Lines of visitors would look at the corpse
Their dread was to increase in years to come. Joseph Stalin, Lenin's
successor, was even more cruel and sadistic. In a short time, he established
the greatest "reign of terror" in modern history.