findings of a New Zealand zoologist have pointed engineers constructing
complex networks, such as the World Wide Web and electrical grids, in
a new direction: dolphins.
David Lusseau from University of Otago studied a community consisting
of 64 bottlenose dolphins over a period of seven years. (1)
He discovered the existence among them of a social structure similar to
that in humans and human-made networks. The researcher's mathematical
study was published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society.
Many complex networks, including human communities, possess features
that make rapid exchanges of information between members possible.
This study by the New Zealand researcher shows that animal communities
are also organised in such a way as to transfer information in a rapid
and efficient manner. Long-lived creatures such as gorillas, deers, elephants
and bottlenose dolphins rely on their environments in the information
In his observations of dolphins, Lusseau focused on individuals that
were seen together more frequently. He realised that these consisted for
the most part of adult females, and that these served as transmission
centres for the community.
In order to measure the information flows in a system it is sufficient
to look at the hubs of information through which it passes and to count
the number of elements required in the passage from the starting point
to the end point. Lusseau employed this measurement technique, known as
"diameter." When the results he obtained using this method were
compared with the data revealed by the Internet he found himself confronted
by an astonishing situation.
duration of information transfer increased when a large number of points
establishing connections on the Internet were eliminated. In the event
that just 2% of the nodes with the most links on the Internet were left
out of the system, it took twice as long to go from one element to another.
Among dolphins, however, the situation was different.
Lusseau monitored the dolphins using markings on their dorsal fins and
observed that when individuals acting as communications centres left the
group, the community exhibited considerable resilience. The coherence
of the dolphin community was not affected by the removal of key individuals.
This resilience made it possible for the dolphin community to continue
in a healthy manner even if one third of the population were absent.
The researcher states that thanks to this system the network can persist
even in the face of catastrophic death. Moreover, he suggests that these
features could be applied to human-made networks such as the World Wide
As we have seen, there is an arrangement in dolphins that is better protected
than the communication network that constitutes the Internet and that
functions more effectively in the event that the main nodes are removed.
The presence of such a feature in dolphins means that various criteria
must have been calculated. For example, several stages, such as calculating
the load to be applied to the connection points in the job of organising
the Internet and estimating beforehand how the entire network will be
affected if these are removed from the system, are carried out by network
engineers and this permits information to travel in the system in the
most efficient way possible. The existence of engineers who calculate
and organise the flow of information on the Internet shows the existence
of a superior intellect that regulates the information network in dolphins
and many other similar living things in nature. There can be no doubt
but that this superior intellect is that of Omniscient, Almighty God.
The creation of this information network in dolphins is a manifestation
of His name of the Merciful. The Mercy of God is manifested in this information
The way that living things such as dolphins, which live in open waters
and close to the surface, behave as a group is of vital importance. This
lifestyle provides an advantage in terms of being on guard against predators,
as well as when hunting. Thanks to the constant flow of information among
the adult females in the group, other members are provided with information
about the locations of prey and predators, as a result of which the group
is assisted in behaving cohesively. If this flow of information in dolphins
were to be impaired as a result of losses inflicted by predators, then
the escape of other dolphins would be meaningless, and these individuals
with no possibility of communicating would be forced to disperse and would
eventually fall prey to other predators. However, the information network
created in dolphins by God is not interrupted at such times, and allows
individuals to survive by maintaining the cohesion of the group.
God reveals the following in one verse of the Qur'an:
"Truly your Lord is the Almighty, the Most Merciful." (Qur'an,
1. David Lusseau,
"The Emergent Properties of a Dolphin Social Network", http://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0307/0307439.pdf
2 Lusseau, 2003 The emergent properties of a dolphin social network. Proceedings
of the Royal Society of London-
Series B (Supplement): DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0057
3. Danny Kingsley, “Dolphins better at networking than the Web”,
ABC Science Online, 17 July 2004, http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s901670.htm