GREATEST DESIGN: UNIVERSE
"He Who created the seven heavens in layers.
You will not find any flaw in the creation of the All-Merciful.
Look again-do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. Your
sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted!" (Qur'an,
There are unchangeable fundamental laws
in the universe, which affect all animate and inanimate beings alike.
These laws are proofs that illustrate the perfection in the creation
of the universe just as are the flawless creatures that live therein.
Today, these hints are presented to us as laws of physics as discovered
largely by physicists. The laws ordinarily accepted as 'laws of physics'
are nothing but the evidence of the perfection in creation of Allah.
(For detailed information refer to:
Harun Yahya, The Creation of the Universe).
Let us give just a few examples of the
perfection of design in the universe.
For instance, let us examine one of a dozen
crucial properties of rainwater: the 'viscosity of water'.
Different liquids have different degrees
of velocity. However, the viscosity of water is perfect for the use
of all creatures. If it was a little higher than it is, plants could
not have used it for transporting the nutrients vitally important for
survival within their capillary tubes.
If the viscosity of water were lower than
it is, the flow of rivers would have been a great deal different, hence
the mountain formations would have changed, valleys and plateaus would
not have formed, and rocks could not have disintegrated to form soil.
Water also facilitates the circulation of the red blood
cells that defend our bodies against microbes and dangerous substances.
If water's viscosity were greater, the movement of these cells within
the vessels would have been totally impossible, the heart would have
been overwhelmed in pumping the blood and would possibly have failed
to obtain the energy necessary for this job.
Even these few examples sufficiently illustrate
that water is a fluid that has been especially created for living beings.
Allah, in reference to water, states in a verse:
It is He Who sends down water from the sky. From
it you drink and from it come the shrubs among which you graze your
herds. And by it He makes crops grow for you and olives and dates and
grapes and fruit of every kind. There is certainly a Sign in that for
people who reflect. (Surat an-Nahl: 10-11)
Balance of Forces
What would happen if the gravitational
force were greater than it is today? Running or walking would be impossible.
Humans and animals would spend much more energy moving about, which
would diminish the energy resources of the earth. What if gravity were
less powerful? Light objects could not maintain their state of balance.
For instance, dust particles picked up by breezes would float in the
air for long periods. The speed of raindrops would decrease, and they
possibly would evaporate before reaching the ground. Rivers would flow
more slowly and hence electricity would not be generated at the same
All this is rooted in the property of the
gravitational pull of masses. Newton's law of gravitation states that
the force of the gravitational attraction between objects depends on
their masses and the distance between them. Hence, if the distance between
two stars is increased three times, the gravitational force is decreased
by a factor of nine, or if the distance is decreased to half, the force
of gravity is increased four times.
This law helps explain the current positions
of the earth, moon and planets. If the law of gravitation were different,
for example, if the gravitational force were increased as the distance
increased, the orbits of the planets would not be elliptical and they
would collapse into the sun. If it were weaker, the earth would be set
on a course steadily away from the sun. So, if the force of gravity
did not have precisely the value it does, the earth would either collide
with the sun or be lost in the depths of space.
What If Planck's Constant Were Different?
We encounter different forms of energy
all the time. For instance, even the heat that we sense in front of
the fire has been created with intricate balances.
In physics, energy is assumed to radiate
not as a wave but in small particular amounts called 'quanta'. In calculating
the radiant energy, a certain unchanging value called Planck's Constant
is used. This number is generally small enough to be considered negligible.
This number is one of the fundamental and unchanging indices in nature,
which is approximately expressed as 6.626x10-34. In any situation involving
radiation, if the energy of a photon is divided by its frequency the
result will always equal this constant. All forms of electromagnetic
energy, i.e. heat, light, etc. are governed by Planck's Constant.
If this minute number were a different
size, then the heat we sense in front of a fire would have been much
stronger. Either, at one extreme, the smallest fire could have contained
enough energy to burn us up or at the other extreme, even a giant fireball
the size of the sun would not have been sufficient to warm the earth.
Frictional forces are generally considered
inconveniences, as they are encountered especially while moving things
in our daily lives. However, what would the world be like if frictional
forces were completely eliminated? Pens and papers would slip out of
our hands and fall down from the table to the floor, tables would slide
to the corners of rooms, and in short all objects would fall and roll
until everything finally came to a stop at the lowest point. In a frictionless
world, all knots would untie, screws and nails would come off, no cars
could ever brake, while sounds would never die but echo endlessly.
All of these laws of physics are
clear proofs that the universe, just like all the creatures within
it, is a product of divine design. In fact, the laws of physics are
nothing but human explanations and descriptions of the divine order
that Allah has created. Allah has created the unchanging laws of order
in the universe and put them in the service of humans so that man
will reflect upon and understand the Sovereignty of Allah and give
thanks for His blessings.
One can continue giving countless
examples in illustration of the order in the creation of Allah. Every
created thing since the formation of the universe millions of years
ago has been brought into existence by nothing other than the Omniscience
and Sovereignty of Allah.