The information given in the Qur'an about ancient Egypt reveals many
historical facts that had remained undisclosed until recent times. These
facts also indicate to us that every word in the Qur'an has been revealed
by sure wisdom.
Haman is a character whose name is mentioned in the Qur'an, along with
the Pharaoh. He is recorded in six different places of the Qur'an as one
of the closest men to the Pharaoh.
Surprisingly the name of Haman is never mentioned in those sections of
the Torah pertaining to the life of Moses. However, the mention of Haman
can be found in the last chapters of the Old Testament as the helper of
a Babylonian king who inflicted many cruelties on the Israelites approximately
1,100 years after Moses.
Some non-Muslims, who claim that the Prophet Mohammed wrote the Qur'an
by copying from the Torah and the Bible, also assert that during the process,
he transferred some of the subjects related in these books into the Qur'an
The absurdity of these claims was demonstrated only after the Egyptian
hieroglyphic alphabet had been deciphered, approximately 200 years ago,
and the name "Haman" discovered in the ancient scripts.
Before these discoveries, the writings and inscriptions of ancient Egypt
could not be understood. The language of ancient Egypt was hieroglyphic,
which survived through the ages. However, with the spread of Christianity
and other cultural influences in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, Egypt forsook
its ancient beliefs as well as hieroglyphic writing. The last known example
of the use of hieroglyphic writing was an inscription dated 394 AD. Then
that language was forgotten, leaving nobody who could read and understand
it. And that was the situation until some 200 years ago
The mystery of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics was solved in 1799 by the
discovery of a tablet called the Rosetta Stone dating back to 196 B.C.
The importance of this inscription was that it was written in three different
forms of writing: Hieroglyphics, demotic (a simplified form of ancient
Egyptian hieratic writing) and Greek. With the help of the Greek script,
the ancient Egyptian writings were decoded. The translation of the inscription
was completed by a Frenchman named Jean-Françoise Champollion.
Hence a forgotten language and the events related in it were brought to
light. In this way, a great deal of knowledge about the civilization,
religion and social life of ancient Egypt became available.
Through the decoding of hieroglyph, an important piece
of knowledge was revealed: the name "Haman" was indeed mentioned
in Egyptian inscriptions. This name was referred to in a monument in the
Hof Museum in Vienna. (1)
In the dictionary of "People in the New Kingdom,"
that was prepared based on the entire collection of inscriptions, Haman
is said to be "the head of stone quarry workers". (2)
The result revealed a very important truth. Unlike the false assertion
of the opponents of the Qur'an, Haman was a person who lived in Egypt
at the time of Moses, who had been close to the Pharaoh, and had been
involved in construction work, just as imparted in the Qur'an.
Furthermore, the verse in the Qur'an describing the event where the Pharaoh
asked Haman to build a tower is in perfect agreement with this archaeological
"Pharaoh said, 'Council, I do not know of
any other god for you apart from Me. Haman, kindle a fire for me over
the clay and build me a lofty tower so that perhaps I may be able to climb
up to Moses' god! I consider him a blatant liar.'" (Surat al-Kasas:
In conclusion, the existence of the name Haman in the ancient Egyptian
inscriptions not only rendered the fabricated claims of the opponents
of the Qur'an worthless, but also confirmed one more time the fact that
the Qur'an comes from Allah. In a miraculous way, the Qur'an conveys to
us historical information that could not have been possessed or understood
at the time of the Prophet.
(1) Walter Wreszinski, Aegyptische
Inschriften aus dem K.K. Hof Museum in Wien, 1906, J. C. Hinrichs'
(2) Hermann Ranke, Die Ägyptischen Personennamen,
Verzeichnis der Namen, Verlag Von J. J. Augustin in Glückstadt, Band
I, 1935, Band II, 1952